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CHAPTER 13UNIQUE FABRICATIONS AND INNOVATIONS• Fabrics with Special Features• Three categories• 1. Moisture transport• 2. Waterproofing and breathability• 3. Thermal insulation• *These all relate to moisture management performance • 1. Moisture transport: textile with ability to move moisture away from the skin • Comfort Cooling: to keep cool in hot weather, fabric must induce evaporation• Hollow-core fibers trap heat and channel moisture away from the skin- synthetics• Wool is only natural fiber with hollow-core• Table 13.1• Fiber Innovations• Wicking: hydrophobic, manufactured fibers capable of transporting moisture • Two-Sided Fabric Systems• Push/Pull effect: fabric made with different fibers on each side• Remove moisture away from the skin• Evaporated on outer surface of the fabric • Side closest to skin- hydrophobic; side closest to environment- hydrophilic • 2. Waterproof Breathable Fabrics• Breathability: ability to transport moisture from inside out, and air from the outside inward • EX Poromeric• Structure• Membrane: layer in construction of breathable yet completely waterproof fabrics• Waterproof: does not guarantee a completely waterproof garment• Leakage through seams• *What's the difference between waterproof and water resistance?• Waterproof is permanent because of the laminate• Waterproof- water sits on the outside• Water resistant- water seeps in top layers • Table 13.2 • Effect of Temperature and Humidity• Temperature/humidity gradient• Moves warm/moist air to outside of clothing • 3. Thermal Insulation: preventing loss of body heat • Principles of Fabric/Garment Insulation: insulation is dependent on the ability of the fabrics• Dead air: still air could be a perfect insulator• *Fibers that trap packets of warm air is good (+)• *Fabrics with poor cover, allowing cold air in is bad (-) • Wetness: conducts heat, so perspiration increases heat loss• *Hydrophobic fibers allow for wicking (+)• Resilience: textile's ability to not mat or become thin aids in insulation• *Batting (cotton or polyester) • Special Insulation Materials:• Outerwear Fabrics: Thermolite, Polartec• Battings: Thinsulate and Primaloft • Electrotextile: "smart fabrics" that have increased capabilities • Sense• Respond• Adjust to stimuli • Flexible electronic circuitry• Solar cells• Batteries• Medical monitoring • Phase-Change Materials (PCM): substance that alternates between being a solid and a liquid• Gives off heat in solid state• Absorbs heat in liquid state• Industrial Fabrics: engineered to meet special performance requirements• Categorized according to their end use: • Finished Product: ex. seat upholstery • Consumed in Process: ex. filters or buffing wheels • Combines with Other Materials: ex. hoses, rubber, belting • Textiles in a car:• Carpeting• Seat belts• Seat upholstery• Airbags• Tires• Filters• Nonwoven/batting materials:• Muffler wrap• Insulation• Sound proofing • Table 13.3• Geotextiles: textiles used in construction and civil engineering applications• Drainage and filtration• Stabilization/reinforcement• Erosion Control• Protection• Moisture barriers • Biotechnology: implementation of textiles within the body to help it heal• Mesh in hernia repairs• Regenerated tendons and other connective tissue• Heart valves, vessels • Specialty Fibers• Cordura nylon (Invista TM)• High tenacity nylon• Tear and abrasion resistance• Luggage and outerwear • Kevlar and Nomex aramid fibers (DuPont TM)• Heat protective clothing• Fire-resistant fabrics• Bulletproof fabrics • Protective garments:• Thermal resistance• Firefighters • Resistance to Penetration• Chemical and bio-organisms• Nano-filtration • Spectra fiber is, pound for pound, 15 times stronger than steel, more durable than polyester, and has a specific strength that is up to 40% greater thanthat of aramid fiber • Leather: skin of an animal, bird, or reptile • Properties: excellent air and water vapor permeable textile • Split Leather: thicker hides cut into thinner layers• Full-grain: leather that hasn't been split • Suede Leather: generally made from split leather, often cowhide• Tanning: chemical finish to make skin pliable, water and rot resistant• Other processes: bleach, dye, emboss, print, glaze, etc. • Top grain leather is the highest quality• Can be suede-brushed • Requires special care: leather cleaning method• Patent Leather: high-gloss, durable leather made by applying successive coats of polyurethane • Reconstituted Leather: ground leather pieces bound together with urethane • Suede: skin is sanded on flesh side (generally) or one side of a split • Nubuck: grain sueded leather- sanded on the grain side produces a velvety hand• Fur: skin of an animal with the fiber or hair attached• Quality: affected by the age, health, and season when the animal was killed • Processing fur• Dyeing: improves natural color• Other processes:• Pluck and shear• Clipped • Grooved• Adding dimensional qualities• Marketing• International Fur Trade Federation (IFTF)• Fur Information Council of America (FICA)• Fur Products Labeling act 1952 (amended in 1998)• Name of the animal that produced the fur• Country of origin of the fur of garment• If fur color is natural or from dye• If the garment contains fur from scrap parts• If the fur has been previously used CHAPTER 12CARE AND RENOVATION OF TEXTILES• Color Problems• Colorfastness: related to chemistry of fibers, dyes, and pigments; penetration and fixation• Bleeding: loss of color in water or other solutions; may color other fabrics present • Fading: color loss due to perspiration, gas fumes, sunlight, etc.; dyes degraded• Migration: color movement to adjacent areas or fabrics• **Poor colorfastness on red thread• Crocking: color transfer to another fabric or skin from rubbing together • Tendering: destruction of fabric due to reaction of dye and fiber; caused by heat, light, atmospheric contamination, etc. • Frosting: colored portion of fabric lost by abrasion (usually due to poor dye penetration)• Care and Cleaning• Care: the procedures to remove soil and return products to new or nearly new conditions• Storage conditions that maintain textile products• Makes products reusable and sustainable • Care Labels and Terms•

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