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2 classes of nephronscoritcal (85% of nephrons)and Juxtamedullary (15% ofnephrons)2 layers of smooth musclein the viscera- Longitudinal layer—parallelto long axis of organ- Circular layer—deeper layer,fibers run around2 parts of the uterusfundus (rounded superiorportion) and cervix ("neck"of uterus)3 gastric cells and what theysecretemucous neck cells- specialmucousparietal cells-HCL and gastricintrinsic factorchief cells- secret pepsin3 parts of uterine tubes andtheir locationinfundibulum (distal end)ampulla (middle)isthmus (medial/closest tobody)3 phases of menstrual cycle(describe them)menstrual-Shedding of the functional layer ofthe endometrium.proliferative-Rebuilding of the functional layerof the endometrium.secretory-Begins immediately after ovulation.Enrichment of the blood supply and glandularsecretion of nutrients prepare the endometrium toreceive an embryo.3 regions of male urethra(PMS)prostatic, membranous,and spongy urethra.3 subdivisions of the smallintestine- Duodenum- Jejunum- Ileum3 types of saliva glandsparotid, submandibular,sublingual4 hormones of menstrualcycleLHFSHprogesteroneestrogen4 regions of the stomach- Cardiac region- Fundus- Body- Pyloric region4 sections of renal tubuleproximal convoluted tubulenephron loopdistal convoluted tubule collecting ductsabsorptiontransport of digestednutrientsAccessory digestive organsTeeth and tongueGallbladder, salivaryglands, liver, and pancreasantevertedtilted anteriorlyarterial support to thetestes-testicular arteries +veins arise from papiniformplexus+innvervated by parasympatheticand sympathetic divisions of theANScardiac sphinctercloses lumen to preventstomach acid from enteringesophaguschemical digestioncomplex molecules brokendown to chemicalcomponentsCystic fibrosis and thepancreasPancreatic ducts become blockedwith mucus• Clogged ducts prevent pancreaticjuices from entering small intestine• Leads to malabsorption of fats andother nutrientsdefecation reflexnormal response to thepresence of feces in therectum, normal response tothe presence of feces in therectumdefectionelimination of indigestiblesubstances as fecesexocrine function of thepancreas- Acinar cells make, store,and secrete pancreaticenzymes- Enzymes are activated inthe duodenumfiltration membraneholds back most proteinslets in water, ions, glucose,amino acids, urea.function of femalereproductionproduces gametesprepares to support anembryoundergoes changes accordingto the menstrual cyclefunction of malereproductionto produce, maintain, andtransport spermfunction of the tonguegrips and repositions foodhelps form someconsonantsfunction of urethrasecrete nearly 60% of the volume of semen(fructose to nourish semen, substances toenhance mobility, suppresses immuneresponse against semen, enzymes that clotthen liquify semen.)carries sperm from ejaculatory ducts to"outside"function of uterussite for implantation offertilised ova, placentation,growth and development ofthe fetus.glomerular capsule- Parietal layer—simplesquamous epithelium - Visceral layer—consists ofpodocytesglomeruliproduce filtrate thatbecomes urinegenerates 1L of fluid every 8minutesglomerulustuft of fenestratedcapillariesgreater omentuma "fatty apron" ofperitoneumgross anatomy of theesophagus and where itconnects to the stomachanatomy-muscular tubethat joins the stomachinferior to the diaphragmhepatocytefunctional cells of the liverhow many deciduous teeth?20, that appear at 6 monthshow many permanentteeth?32ingestionoccurs in the mouthinter-peritoneal organshave mesenteriesliver stomachilleum and jejunumtransverse colonsigmoid colonJuxtaglomerular apparatusregulates blood pressurearea of specialized contact betweenterminal and of limb and afferent arterialinitiates renin-angiotensin mechanism(in response to falling BP)regulated blood flow w/in glomeruluskidney functions (explainthem)filtration- filtrate bloodreabsorption- most nutrients, water,and ions reclaimedsecretion-active process ofremoving undesirable moleculeskidneysfilter liters of fluid from bloodmaintain the chemicalconsistency of bloodsend toxins, waste, and excesswater out of the body.know the major functionsof hepatocytes- Rough ER manufactures blood proteins- Smooth ER produces bile salts,detoxifies poisons - Peroxisomes detoxify poisons (alcohol)- Glycosomes store sugarkupffer cellsdestroy bacteriathe large intestine• Digested residue contains fewnutrients• Small amount of digestion bybacteria• Main functions- Absorb water and electrolyteslateral ligamentshorizontal from cervix andvaginalesser omentumattaches to lesser curvatureof stomachlocation and function ofuretersCarry urine from the kidneysto the urinary bladderOblique entry into bladderprevents backflow of urinelocation of kidneysretroperitoneally, lateral toT12-L3location of uterusanterior to rectum,posterior to bladder.is usually anteverted(inclined forward)major sections of malereproductive systemsee slide 32, figure 25.1major stages of labor1. dilation2. more dilation3. expulsion4. placentalmajor structures ofmammary glandsbreasts-modified sweat glands-glandular structure undevelopedin non pregnant womenmilk production starts at or afterchildbirth see slide 24 diagrammechanical digestionprepares food for chemicaldigestion )chewing,churning, etc)menstrual cyclemonthly, due to hormonalfluctuations in ovaries anduterusmesenterya double layer of peritoneum that:holds organs in placesites of fat storageprovides a route for circulatoryvessels and nervesmesometriumanchors uterus to lateralpelvic wallsthe mouth is also known asthe oral cavityname the 2 layers ofperitoneumvisceral (surrounds organs)parietal (lines the bodywall)Name the 6 Digestiveprocesses (I Proposed toMy Cat And Dog)Ingestionpropulsionmechanical digestion chemical digestionabsorptiondefecationname the 9 regions of theabdominal surfaceRight and left hypochondriacright and left lumbarright and left iliacepigastricumbilical regionhypogastric (pubic) regionnephronrenal corpuscle/first part ofnephronincludes the glomerulusand glomerular capsulenerve supply to the kidneyscomes from...the renal plexus (networkof autonomic fibers)oogenesiscreation of egg (the femalegamete)organs in epigastric regionstomachorgans in hyopgastricregionurinary bladderorgans in left and righthypochondriacR-Liver and gallbladderL-Diaphragmorgans in left and rightlumbarR-ascending colon of largeintestineL- descending colonorgans in the right and leftiliac regionR- cecum and appendixL-initial part of


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