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Arteries of pelvis and lowerlimbs (begin at iliac andmove downwards)-internal iliac-external iliac artery-femoral-popliteal-anterior and posterior tibial artery2 types of capillariesContinuous (mostcommon)Fenestrated (have pores)2 types of common carotidarteriesexternal and internal.located in anterior triangleof the neck.2 veins the dorsal veinnetwork drains intoCephalic (lateral)Basilic (medial)3 branches of aortic arch• Brachiocephalic trunk• Left common carotid• Left subclavian arteries3 Layers of Blood VesselsTunica intimaTunica mediaTunica externa3 veins of the abdomen• Renal veins• Suprarenal veins• Hepatic veinsanastomosesthe reconnection of two streams that previouslybranched out, such as blood vessels or leaf veins.Arterieshave a layer of smoothmusclecontrolled by autonomicnervous systemArteriescarry blood away fromheartArteriolesSmallest arteriesdiameter of arterioles arecontrolled by sympatheticnervous systemAscending aortaarises from left ventricleaxillary artery becomesthe...brachial arteryBlood gets fed to the brainthrough what cerebralarteries?Anterior CerebralMiddle CerebralPosterior CerebralCircle of WillisBrachial artery becomes theradial and ulnar arteryCapillariessmallest blood vessels,siteof exchange of moleculesbetween blood and tissuefluidCapillary bedsnetwork of capillariesrunning through tissuesDeep veins travel in whatrelation to the correspondingartery?+How are deep veins named?they travel with the corresponding artery,follow path of companion arteries(radial/ulnar to brachial to axillary tosubclavian)+deep veins share the name of the arterythey accompanyDescending aortacomes off aoritc arch andcontinues to about thediaphragmDisorders of Blood vesselsAneurysm (weakened area in the wall of a bloodvessel that balloons out)Atherosclerosis (building up of plaque inlumen, seen in high blood pressure, beings inyouth)Deep vein thrombosis (formation of a bloodclot in a deep vein, superficial veins may beengorged as a result)Elastic arteriesthe largest arteriesalso called conducting arteriesdampens the surge of bloodpressure from fluid enteringyour bloodstreamEndothelial cellsheld together by tightjunctionsGreat VS Small saphenousveinsgreat-empties into femoralveinsmall-empties intopopliteal veinHepatic portal Systemtake in digestive nutrients,goes through liver to beprocessed, then distributed throughout the restof the bodyInferior vena cavareturns blood from bodybelow diaphragmintercellular cleftsgaps of unjoined membrane(small molecule can enterand exit)Is the blood brain barrier abarrier against oxygen,carbon dioxide, and someanesthetics?No.LumenCentral blood-filled spaceof a vesselMedian cubital veinused to obtain blood oradminister IV fluids (whereyou donate blood from)Multiveinvenous plexusesMuscular/distributingArterieslies distal to elastic arteriestunica media is thickcontains internal andexternal elastic laminaeName the 2 unusualpatterns of venous drainagedural sinuseshepatic portal systemPostcapillary Venulessmallest venules. Venules=smallest veinsprecapillary sphinctersregulate the flow of bloodtissueSinusoidsWide, leaky capillaries foundin some organs (usuallyfenestrated.occur in bone marrow andspleen.Subclavian artery enters theaxilla as...the axillary arterySuperficial veins arelocated...just below the skin.Superior Vena cavareturns blood from bodyregions superior to thediaphragmSystemic circulationcarries oxygenated bloodaway from heartThoracic and abdominalaorta.+What will they divideinto?thoracic- in the region of T5-T12abdominal-ends at L4divides into common iliacarteriesTunica externacomposed of connectivetissue (outer layer)Tunica intimacomposed of simplesquamous epithelium(inner)Tunica Mediasheets of smooth muscle(middle)Vasoconstriction can alterwhat?The size of the lumen, andthe rate of blood movementthrough it.Vasoconstriction VSVasodilationvaso= vesselvasoconstriction-contractionvasodilation-relaxationVeinscarry blood towards theheartWhat are the smallest bloodvessels and their functions inthe lungs, small intestines,endocrine glands, andkidneys?capillaries-red blood cells pass through single file• Lungs—oxygen enters blood, carbon dioxideleaves• Small intestines—receive digested nutrients• Endocrine glands—pick up hormones• Kidneys—remove of nitrogenous wastesWhat can you control bloodflow through? Give anexample.Major arteries and pressurepoints. (i.e. femoral artery,popiteal artery, andcommon carotid artery)What creates venouspressure?Valves and skeletal musclepumps.What type of vesselsconduct blood fromcapillaries towards theheart?Veins.note: veins have lowerblood pressure


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