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Europe Middle Ages- The Middle Ages are a period of violence, superstition, lack of Latin skills, time of cultural, social, political, economic decline- The Middle Ages is the time period between Fall of Rome and The Renaissance Split into the “Early Middle Ages” to the “Late Middle Ages”- Also referred as the Dark Ages- Christianity is very important during this time period- The mixture of Germanic traditions, roman traditions, and Christian traditions lay the foundation of European countries.- Gregory the First or Gregory the Great was Pope. Left a lasting impression on the papacy. Was very roman, imbued with virtues of public service and had excellentpublic administration. Helped reinforce Rome as the leading place of Christianity.- Gregory the First is the apostle to England. He converted England back to Christianity. A very close bond between England and Rome because of Gregory the First. - The kingdom established by the Germanic group in France by the Franks.o The Merovingian Kingdom in France. o The Battle of Soissons is associated with the First Louis (original name is Clovis)o Louis 1st is the first great kings of France and established the Merovingian dynasty. Clovis (Louis) was a great conqueror. o Clovis was a very clever person. One story goes that Clovis told the warriors of another king that if anything happens to their king, he’d give them gold armbands. The warriors kill their king and when they come to receive their reward, Clovis does not give them the gold armbands and claims that they deserve worse for betray their king and then Clovis conquers this king-less kingdom.o Clovis was a pagan. Prior to the battle of Soissons, Clovis was approachedby a bishop who asked him to return a “sacred chalice” to a church. Clovispromises to return this chalice. This was big because Clovis was a pagan and was helping out a Christian. This reflects well on Clovis because a bishop has power and Clovis was helping out someone who had power. Because of this, Opposers who were Christian do not find Clovis.o Clovis had a wife, Clothilde. Clothilde was a Catholic Christian. She was responsible in converting Clovis to Christianity. Clovis was the first catholic barbarian king. He gained all of the catholic Christians as followers.o Clovis writes laws in Latin. This is important because Christianity is strongly associated with Roman traditions.o Before Clovis died, he divided his kingdom into 4 shares for his 4 sons. He divided his kingdom into the old roman boundaries.  This obviously causes lots of civil wars to break out between these brothers who want all of the kingdom.o Clovis is arguably the greatest of the Merovingian kings.- Fredegund and Brunhildo These 2 women marry the Merovingian decendants of Cloviso Fredegund Chilperic Fredegund slept her way through the court to Chilperic.o Brunhild  Sigebert Brunhild is a princess from Spain.o Chilperic decides he wants to marry a princess like his brother Sigebert so he arranges a marriage with Galswintha. Glaswintha is Brunhild’s sister and Brunhild is killed.o There was a civil war between these 2.o Fredegund was more successful in this civil war. Fredegund’s son wins this civil war by killing Brunhild.- The Merovingian Period is also known as the period of Rois Fainéants or the “do nothing kings”o These kings kept giving away land to keep their warriors loyal, which in turn reduced their power.o Mayor of the Palace is an office of someone who was in charge of finances. o A civil war breaks out between the Mayors of the Palace- The Carolingian Dynasty is a result of the Civil war of the Mayors of the Palace.o Charles Martel Name means “the Hammer” Fought his way to take control of the kingdom of France. Famous for the Battle of Tours – 732- Fought a Muslim Army which came from Spain, and beat them. Made his sons Pippin and Carloman Mayors of the Palace.o Carloman retired to a Monastery leaving Pippin in charge.o Pippin sends an important letter to the Pope asking if he should rule or not,Pope says he should. Pippin becomes the first of the Carolingian Kings. Pippin established a close alliance with the Pope. Established a close ties with the bishops of France. Reformed the Frankish Church. Expanded the kingdom of France, expanded to southwest France (Aquitaine)- Charlemagne the Greato Son of Pippino Thought of himself as a great Christian King.o Forged the greatest empire of Europe since the Roman Empire.o Forged an important alliance with the Church.o Oversaw many reforms of the church in France. He established the reform that priests shouldn’t be married.o He passed many laws.o He expanded education.o Responsible for the Carolingian Renaissance.o One of the greatest rulers of Early European history, his kingdom o His empire was France, he conquered much of modern Europe today, they were either directly under his control or through a colony type dealo Charlemagne fought wars with the Saxons of Saxony (the Saxons were Pagan)o Saxons were fuckers to him, kept killing his priests when he tried to convert them after defeating themo Pope asked Charlemagne for help in dealing with the Lombards, Charlemagne defeats them and makes himself king of the Lombardso Charlemagne portrayed himself above people and below Jesus in the painting of the Aachen Cupola’s dome, (the Aachen Cupola is a domed church) This helped him control and drive his military policy and other policies because it made the people see him as God’s rightful ruler;a Just and righteous kingo The Capitulary Laws divided into chapters- These laws legislated on EVERYTHINGo The Carolingian Renaissance A great rebirth of learning  This was regulated by the Capitularies- Called for the establishment of schools Charlemagne attracted important scholars to his courts because of this Renaissance- One scholar that was attracted to his court is Alcuin of England, who brought books with him to his court - Books are important to the Carolingians (fancy book covers)- Many bibles were copied + other important Christian books- Many books were written as well ; grammar books, books about life, books of law, etc In the year 800- While walking through the streets of Rome, the pope was attacked. His eyes were fucked up and tongue cut off. Hewas accused of crimes so a new pope was appointed. This ex-pope was taken to Charlemagne, through voodoo and magic he regained sight and speech. This

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UD HIST 103 - Europe Middle Ages

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