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Questions from the 1840sWestward expansion and Mexican War created issue of how to deal with slavery in new territoriesIn 1848 most people assumed this was not a pressing issue. Didn’t count on the California gold rush or Mormon settlement of UtahElection of 1848Zachary Taylor (Whig)Lewis Cass (Democrat)Martin Van Buren (Free Soil)Taylor Wins the election – more from the electoral vote than popular voteMormon UtahIn 1844 only 2000 Americans in California; almost none in UtahJoseph Smith and early MormonismEarly family historyMove to Palmyra, NY, 1816Death of Alvin and loss of farmJoseph’s marriage to Emma HaleJoseph’s visions and the Book of MormonMormon migration from New York to Ohio to MissouriMissouri-Mormon War 1838Massacre at Haun’s MillNauvoo, IllinoisMormon DoctrinesDeath of Smith, June 1844Mormons under Brigham Young migrate to UtahDeseret applies for statehood, 1849California Gold Rush1848: Gold discovered in northern CaliforniaOverland immigrants to California:400 in 184825,000 in 184944,000 in 1850By 1850 San Francisco was 13th largest city in U.S.Compromise of 1850Henry Clay’s omnibus billCalifornia admitted as free stateCreated New Mexico and Utah territoriesNorthwest corner of Texas becomes part of NMU.S. assumes Texas debt (Taxes v. Texas)Slavery in District of ColumbiaFugitive Slave LawTaylor dies, July 1850Millard Filmore becomes PresidentStephen A. Douglas takes over Clay’s compromise billOnly 4 of 60 senators vote for all billsMany in North reject Fugitive Slave ActPublication of Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin, 1852Election of 1852Franklin Pierce (Democrat)Winfield Scott (Whig)John P. Hale (Free Soil)Kansas-Nebraska ActProposed by Steven DouglasCreates 2 territories: Kansas and NebraskaSlavery left up to popular sovereigntyOverturned Missouri compromise of 1820Kansas Settled firstBoston abolitionists organize New England Emigrant CompanyMost early settlers come from MissouriCivil War breaks out between anti- and proslavery supportersProslavery forces establish territorial government at LecomptonFree soliers set up rival government at TopekaAntislavery printing presses destroyed at Lawrence, May 1856John BrownSon of a Connecticut AbolitionistPottowatomie massacre, May 1856“Bleeding Kansas”John Brown becomes a symbol of the Kansas conflictCaning of Charles SumnerCharles Sumner, Republican Senator from MassachusettsMay 1856 speech attacking “the crime against Kansas”Critical of Sen. Andrew Butler of S.C.Preston Brooks, Rep. of South Carolina“Bleeding Sumner”The Crises of the 1850s 11/12/2013Questions from the 1840s- Westward expansion and Mexican War created issue of how to deal with slavery in new territories- In 1848 most people assumed this was not a pressing issue. Didn’t count on the California gold rush or Mormon settlement of UtahElection of 1848- Zachary Taylor (Whig)- Lewis Cass (Democrat)- Martin Van Buren (Free Soil)- Taylor Wins the election – more from the electoral vote than popularvoteMormon Utah- In 1844 only 2000 Americans in California; almost none in Utah- Joseph Smith and early Mormonism- Early family history- Move to Palmyra, NY, 1816- Death of Alvin and loss of farm- Joseph’s marriage to Emma Hale- Joseph’s visions and the Book of Mormon- Mormon migration from New York to Ohio to Missouri- Missouri-Mormon War 1838o Massacre at Haun’s Mill- Nauvoo, Illinois- Mormon Doctrines- Death of Smith, June 1844- Mormons under Brigham Young migrate to Utah- Deseret applies for statehood, 1849California Gold Rush- 1848: Gold discovered in northern California- Overland immigrants to California:o 400 in 1848o 25,000 in 1849o 44,000 in 1850o By 1850 San Francisco was 13th largest city in U.S.Compromise of 1850- Henry Clay’s omnibus bill- California admitted as free state- Created New Mexico and Utah territories- Northwest corner of Texas becomes part of NM- U.S. assumes Texas debt (Taxes v. Texas)- Slavery in District of Columbia- Fugitive Slave Law- Taylor dies, July 1850- Millard Filmore becomes President- Stephen A. Douglas takes over Clay’s compromise bill- Only 4 of 60 senators vote for all bills- Many in North reject Fugitive Slave Act- Publication of Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin, 1852Election of 1852- Franklin Pierce (Democrat)- Winfield Scott (Whig)- John P. Hale (Free Soil)Kansas-Nebraska Act- Proposed by Steven Douglas- Creates 2 territories: Kansas and Nebraska- Slavery left up to popular sovereignty- Overturned Missouri compromise of 1820- Kansas Settled firsto Boston abolitionists organize New England Emigrant Companyo Most early settlers come from Missouri- Civil War breaks out between anti- and proslavery supporterso Proslavery forces establish territorial government at Lecomptono Free soliers set up rival government at Topeka- Antislavery printing presses destroyed at Lawrence, May 1856John Brown- Son of a Connecticut Abolitionist- Pottowatomie massacre, May 1856- “Bleeding Kansas”- John Brown becomes a symbol of the Kansas conflictCaning of Charles Sumner- Charles Sumner, Republican Senator from Massachusettso May 1856 speech attacking “the crime against Kansas”o Critical of Sen. Andrew Butler of S.C.- Preston Brooks, Rep. of South Carolina- “Bleeding


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Mizzou HIST 1100 - The Crises of the 1850s

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