Unformatted text preview:

Jaymie TicknorIntro Philosophy 1050 Sect. 0035 and 7 February 2014Lecture #7Aristotle: started a school called Lyceum, nicknamed the Peripatetic (walk around philosopher)Empiricism (belief that we gain knowledge from our senses); Aristotle was an empiricist; knowledge is not innate; comes from senses and experiences; vs. Rationalism (belief that we gain knowledge from our reason); Plato a rationalist; knowledge is innate; some experiencesTelos: Everything has an ultimate end or purpose or goal; humans’ telos was to be happy (wealth, power, etc. are just means for eudaimonia: happiness/flourishing)Aristotle rejects Plato’s Theory of the Forms (more down-to-earth); replaced it with the fact that the forms do exist but they exist in the physical worldForm: the form of an animal is the way the matter of the body is organized; Matter: the material or substance out of which the subject or object is composed/made ofAristotle’s method of investigation: interested in natural world, collecting detailed information of animals, plants, etc.Book called the ‘Physics’: phusis, translates more accurately as “the order of nature”; classified things into Natural (principle of motion and stability, growth and decay, or alteration; animals, parts, plants, elements (air, water, earth, and fire; makes up a fifth element (Aether: heavenly bodies)), humans, animals, vegetables, minerals, etc.) and Artificial/Other (bed, cloak, artifacts made by a craft)Accidental Properties : property that exists in an object but is not necessary for that objectto be what it is (human of a particular weight, height, with no leg, arm, etc.)Necessary Properties : what something needs to have to be what it is (triangle has to have three sides to be a triangle)Humans: accidental properties (skin color, eye color, hair color, age, fingers, toes,gender, etc.); necessary properties (four chamber heart, human DNA, human blood, consciousness, mammal, human brain); according to Aristotle: consciousness/rationality as a necessary/essential property for humansCategorizes Four causes (aition, neutral form a word commonly used to describe responsibility or blame; uses this word in the sense meaning, an explanation for how a thing came about for both accidental and necessary properties)Material cause: whatever something is made of; x is what y is made out ofFormal cause: explains the form or pattern to which a thing corresponds; x is what it is to be y (necessary properties)Efficient cause: effico, which is what we ordinarily mean by “cause”, the originalsource of the change; x is what produces yFinal cause: “that for the sake of which”; final cause, which is the intended purpose of the change; x is what y is for (essential)Examples: Book: M = paper; F = pages, paragraphs, organization; E = author, publisher, editor; F = reading, knowledgeObserved Giraffes: M = bones, blood, flesh; F = organization/shape, long neck, spots; E = parents of giraffe, divine being; F = ecosystem balance, reproduce,

View Full Document

UNT PHIL 1050 - Lecture notes

Download Lecture notes
Our administrator received your request to download this document. We will send you the file to your email shortly.
Loading Unlocking...

Join to view Lecture notes and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Lecture notes 2 2 and access 3M+ class-specific study document.


By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?