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Jaymie TicknorIntro Philosophy 1050 Sect. 0035 and 7 February 2014Lecture #7Aristotle: started a school called Lyceum, nicknamed the Peripatetic (walk around philosopher)Empiricism (belief that we gain knowledge from our senses); Aristotle was an empiricist; knowledge is not innate; comes from senses and experiences; vs. Rationalism (belief that we gain knowledge from our reason); Plato a rationalist; knowledge is innate; some experiencesTelos: Everything has an ultimate end or purpose or goal; humans’ telos was to be happy (wealth, power, etc. are just means for eudaimonia: happiness/flourishing)Aristotle rejects Plato’s Theory of the Forms (more down-to-earth); replaced it with the fact that the forms do exist but they exist in the physical worldForm: the form of an animal is the way the matter of the body is organized; Matter: the material or substance out of which the subject or object is composed/made ofAristotle’s method of investigation: interested in natural world, collecting detailed information of animals, plants, etc.Book called the ‘Physics’: phusis, translates more accurately as “the order of nature”; classified things into Natural (principle of motion and stability, growth and decay, or alteration; animals, parts, plants, elements (air, water, earth, and fire; makes up a fifth element (Aether: heavenly bodies)), humans, animals, vegetables, minerals, etc.) and Artificial/Other (bed, cloak, artifacts made by a craft)Accidental Properties : property that exists in an object but is not necessary for that objectto be what it is (human of a particular weight, height, with no leg, arm, etc.)Necessary Properties : what something needs to have to be what it is (triangle has to have three sides to be a triangle)Humans: accidental properties (skin color, eye color, hair color, age, fingers, toes,gender, etc.); necessary properties (four chamber heart, human DNA, human blood, consciousness, mammal, human brain); according to Aristotle: consciousness/rationality as a necessary/essential property for humansCategorizes Four causes (aition, neutral form a word commonly used to describe responsibility or blame; uses this word in the sense meaning, an explanation for how a thing came about for both accidental and necessary properties)Material cause: whatever something is made of; x is what y is made out ofFormal cause: explains the form or pattern to which a thing corresponds; x is what it is to be y (necessary properties)Efficient cause: effico, which is what we ordinarily mean by “cause”, the originalsource of the change; x is what produces yFinal cause: “that for the sake of which”; final cause, which is the intended purpose of the change; x is what y is for (essential)Examples: Book: M = paper; F = pages, paragraphs, organization; E = author, publisher, editor; F = reading, knowledgeObserved Giraffes: M = bones, blood, flesh; F = organization/shape, long neck, spots; E = parents of giraffe, divine being; F = ecosystem balance, reproduce,


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UNT PHIL 1050 - Lecture notes

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