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Jaymie TicknorIntro Philosophy 1050 Sect. 00315 and 17 January 2014Lecture #1Categories in Philosophy:Epistemology: the study of the nature and scope of knowledge and beliefEthics: the study of the right, the good, and the valuable. Includes study of applied ethicsMetaphysics: the study of the state of being, and the nature of realityAesthetics: the study of the nature of beauty, art, and taste, and the creation of personal kinds of truthLogic: the study of good reasoning, by examining the validity of arguments and documenting their fallacies or errorsLecture #2Plato’s Apology : Socrates and the Defense of the Philosophical Life :Xenophon, Aristophanes, and Plato (Socrates’ student); Aristotle (Plato’s student)Pre-Socratic Philosophers/First Natural Scientists (tried to explain things like thunder and lightning in reality terms instead of religious terms)Socrates charged for corrupting the youth, impious (Atheism; not believing in the gods of the city), proved people to be wrong and unwise, constantly questioning everything including the authority systemPlato: Life and Works:Plato: 427-347 B.C.; born into an Athenian Aristocratic family; disciple of Socrates; founder of first school of philosophy called The Academy; was the teacher of Aristotle, who in turn taught Alexander the Great; wrote mostly in dialogue form; works are generally divided into early, middle and late periodSocrates: c. 470-399; son of a stonecutter and midwife; originally influenced by the Presocratics and the nature of reality (Metaphysics; ethics) but gradually began to be concerned with how people ought to liveIn the Apology (Apologia - defend), describes himself as a gadfly (Athens as a slow horse; fly pokes and makes horse active; important role)Most famous for the Socratic Method (cross examination; locate statement confidently described as common sense; imagine, despite the confidence of the person proposing it, the statement is false. Search for situations or contexts where the statement would not be true; if an exception is found, the definition must be false or at least imprecise)Apology: Socrates condemned by the Athenian government for his teaching methods which aroused skepticism and impiety in his students; Socrates rejected exile (pride) and accepted death from hemlock (poison); the first group did not actually accuse Socrates (indirect because of reputation)Socrates’ Reputation: studies things in the sky and below the earth (where the gods are; should not bother with those places; Clouds play by Aristophanes); makes the worse argument the stronger (avoid arguments by manipulating language; accused being a Sophist like a politician); teaches these things to other people; natural philosopher (religious and mythical to scientific and natural explanations)The Oracle of Delphi and Socrates’ Delphic Quest: Chaerephon questions the oracle; no one is wiser than Socrates (does not imply that he has wisdom); Socrates wonders what the god is saying; Socrates being the wisest (being at the top of the food chain; exaggeration and controversial); went to politicians, poets, and tradesmen who were known to be wise but were not; knows that he is ignorant (where wisdom


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UNT PHIL 1050 - Lecture notes

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