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ML 4201 Chapter 23- Satisfaction is a positive emotional reaction that a consumer has after using a product or service. It is a meaningful, although temporary, affective state.- Dissatisfaction is a negative emotional reaction that a consumer has after using a product or service. - A major issue in marketing is whether satisfaction and dissatisfaction are opposite ends of the same continuum… they should be regarded as separate constructs. - Net satisfaction: The consumer’s overall judgment of the product after combining both satisfaction and dissatisfaction (i.e., net satisfaction = satisfaction + dissatisfaction). So therefore, marketing managers should pursue a dual strategy; (1) to maximize satisfaction and (2) to minimize dissatisfaction. The Disconfirmation Model- Cognitive model applicable in situations where consumers carefully evaluate the brand and compare it to their pre-purchase expectations. Expectations- Consumers normally will not part with their money unless they expect more value than they are giving up. Product Performance- After purchase, the consumer uses the product and experiences it’s performance. This will normally produce descriptive beliefs which allow the consumer to confidently evaluate the product’s performance. Comparison Process- Comparing brand’s performance to what was expected, what was deserved, the minimum tolerable performance, cultural standards, similar brands, the best brand, the ideal product, or specific desires.Confirmation- Product’s performance is approximately equal to expectations so the expectations are said to be “confirmed”. Here, performance is within the “zone of indifference”, which often goes unnoticed by consumers.Positive Disconfirmation- The product’s performance is noticeably above expectations, so the expectations are disconfirmed in a positive wayNegative Disconfirmation- The product’s performance is noticeably below expectations so the expectations are disconfirmed in a negative wayAttributions- Causes of attributes to brands can play a factor or a role The Product Performance Model of Satisfaction- The product’s performance should produce the majority of satisfaction by directly satisfying the consumer’s needs and desiresProduct Performance and Primary Affect- Primary affect: If the product satisfies the consumer’s needs and desires, direct positive affect is produced and associated with the brand.Affect As Satisfaction Model- Affect Model: Consumers can be satisfied with a product’s performance evenif it only meets (instead of exceeds) expectations. Ex: You have some favorite food say ice cream, and you enjoy it even though you expect it to taste good. Accordingly, whenever consumers have positive emotions after product use satisfaction is said to exist. Unrealistic Expectations- People don’t like to watch the news reports because they are filled with “bad news.” To avoid unpleasant information we simply screen out the bad news through selective exposure. This screening has a direct impact on the internalmodel’s view of the world. If we miss unpleasant but accurate news reports, it will be difficult for the internal model to generate accurate expectations. The Law of Diminishing Returns- As people often obtain an increasing amount of a commodity, they will reach a point where additional units of that commodity generate less utility or value than the preceding unit. LESS VALUE than they expected over timeGrumbling Theory- Maslow (1970) also developed what he called the “grumbling theory”- the idea that satisfaction is only temporary and ultimately leads to “higher discontent”. It has 2 major causes:1. When a consumer’s need is gratified there will be a period of satisfaction (increase in positive affect) and/or tension reduction (decrease in negative affect).2. However, this feeling is normally fleeting and quickly replaced by the next striving cycle. 3. The second reason for a grumbling orientation is that people inherently need more and more to make them satisfied. Preventing Personal Dissatisfaction- Carefully edit the internal model so that our beliefs and values are realistic. - Over-estimating Value. Some people use the IM in a way that maximizes theprobability of dissatisfaction by being unrealistically optimistic. Because the IM is free to infer any expectations it wants to, we often imagine the best case scenario to please ourselves in the short run. Immediately gratifying to the IM- Under-estimating Value. Alternatively, some people are unrealistically pessimistic and “low ball” their expectations by thinking of possible negative disconfirmation (and dissatisfaction) is significantly reduced. Preventing Consumer Dissatisfaction- In most cases, marketing managers are especially sensitive to consumer dissatisfaction and seek to minimize it. To achieve this goal managers need tocontrol the quality of the products that reach the market because few things create more negative disconfirmation than poor performance. - The manager must also carefully control the claims made in advertising and promotional efforts.- Finally, marketing managers must have an effective customer service policyso that when consumers are dissatisfied they are handled in a way that eliminates the negative feelings.The Paradox of Persuasion- The goal is to get people to buy our brand and then be satisfied with it. Of course, the best way to maximize is for consumers to have low expectations for the brand and then experience positive disconfirmation. - However, there are times where consumers have a low expected-value for the brand before purchase so they are unlikely to buy the brand at all. Because of this situation, some marketers try to maximize the consumer’s expected-value by overselling the brand (i.e., exaggerating claims). Satisfaction from Higher Need Gratification- The highest satisfaction comes from satisfying growth needs via peak experiences. (i.e., moments of ecstasy which usually include an element of attainment and surprise.) - Growth-based consumption experiences can play a significant role in enhancing consumer growth and increasing overall quality of

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