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Motivation I: The preconditions(Bold and italics are concepts that I predict Robert Smith will ask on the test)A. Exchange Theory- Behavior is like an exchange and human will only perform behavior that brings benefits- E.g. maintaining a relationship- Understand benefits= gain- loss (very simple)- I think he will just ask which theory talks about the reason for having motivationB. Background information of hierarchy of needsFig 1: structure of hierarchy of needs - Founder: Maslow- Key nature of needs satisfaction:i) If certain needs are not satisfied (i.e. love), it can cause psychological and physical illnessii) hierarchy of needs is a type of humanistic needs, which is the opposite of abnormal psychologyiii) He thinks human has rights to satisfy needsCheckpoint question: What is the problem of the third nature of hierarchy of needs?He may ask “Which of the following is NOT true about hierarchy of needs?”1) Introduction to motivationi) Desire vs needs (straight forward, and I am not going to repeat the definition again)- However, remember desire is culturally determinedii) Nature of hierarchy of needsOrder of satisfaction: human satisfyneeds according to the following orders:1) preconditions (will be discussed later)2) deficiency needs3) drives states4) neurotic needs (will be discussedlater)5) growth needs6) subconscious- Prepotency: One type of needs is satisfied in front of others (e.g. you will satisfy hunger needs before the needs of sense of belonging)- Multiple motives and ascending the hierarchy: the fact that you can engage to satisfy several types of needs at the same time, as long as it is reasonably satisfied- Striving cycle: the fact that human will feel relaxed once certain types of needs are satisfied (This is VERY important because it is related to later chapters)iii) Types of needs- Deficiency needs: lower needs- Growth needs: higher needs- Requirement for satisfying needs: functional autonomy- Checkpoint question: Which one, deficiency needs or growth needs, has diminishing marginal returns?C. Preconditions1) Human are striving organisms (refer to striving cycles above)- Satisfaction is short-lived (any marketing implications?)2) Human are curious- Consumer promiscuity- Help to stay happy despite diminishing marginal return3) Human must have freedom - Reactance effect4) Human has needs to understand and know- Curiosity for information seeking- Help to satisfy higher needs5) Self-expressive- Perform for intrinsic motives, an expression of self-state - Express some state of the individual- Opposite of coping behavior: extrinsic motives, reward and punishmentComparison between coping and expressive behavior**The same behavior can occur from expressive or coping reasons- Check point question: What’s wrong if human does not possess the preconditions?Can cause illness if unsatisfied (refer to previous page!)Motivation II: Deficiency needs(Bold and italics are concepts that I predict Robert Smith will ask on the test)A. Needs within the hierarchy1) Physiological needs*** This part would be the focus of this chapter for surei) Sensory needs- Procrastination: put aside things that will hinder the satisfaction of present sensory needs- Psychological hedonism vs ethical hedonism Problem with that?? Are those claims really true?No, what if it hurts later?Solution: avoid pleasure that cause pain or dissatisfaction in a long run- What’s the best? long lasting and mild pleasure should be the best e.g. friendshipii) Homeostasis needs- Definition: chemical equilibrium- Cycle of homeostatic needsFig 1: Cycle of homeostatic need satisfaction2) Safety needs - Physical (physical security) and psychological safety (i.e. freedom from fears and chaos)- What responses does the threat to safety produce? Fight or flight!! 3) Belongingness and love needsi) Belongingness needsDrive object substitute:partially satisfy needsWhat is the difference/relationship between drive object and drive state?Any examples?Homeo-stasisNeedDrive StateAction ImpulsesOvert BehaviorDrive Object- Deficiency based (involves diminishing returns)- social pain causes physical pain- implications to daily lives: increased awareness of other people, think ambiguous situation threateningii) love needs- intimacy: revealing the true (intrinsic) self4) esteem needs- biggest trouble and even animals have struggles in it- esteem matrix (approval of others, intrinsic/extrinsic)intrinsic= high self-esteem; vice versa (recall Motivation I, self-expressapproval of others = high social esteem- problems with low esteem needs: undermine growth and learning, and problems in physical and mental health- solution: self-affirmation, developing non-contingent self-esteem, focus on growthFig 2: structure of hierarchy of needs from Motivation I ChapterB. Neurotic needs- Recall this…- Unnatural needs states- Cause**:i) Deprivationii) AffluenceWhen needs are satisfied, we are in satisfaction state, which means reduction in drive state, relaxed (recall Motivation I, which states that human willfeel relaxed for a while after satisfying needs), and positive emotions. C. Summary of Motivation I and Motivation II- 5 preconditions + 8 deficiency needs = 13- They should be satisfied and at healthy levels- ALL adults have neurotic needsBase your self- esteem on domains that would not easily fluctuate. FYI, contingent means it will go ups and downs!Order of satisfaction: human satisfyneeds according to the following orders:1) preconditions (will be discussed later)2) deficiency needs3) drives states4) neurotic needs (will be discussedlater)5) growth needs6) subconsciousMotivation III: Growth Needs(Bold and italics are concepts that I predict Robert Smith will ask on the test)A. Introduction Fig 1: structure of hierarchy of needs - Recall this…- Nature (must be on the test! Especially the partthat talks about diminishing return and potency)i) Universal, non-culturalii) Require satisfaction from deficiency needs(See Fig 1)iii) Never ending, implying NO Diminishing Marginal of Return!!!iv) No equal potency (recall in Motivation I Chapter, we say the hierarchy of needs pyramiddoes have prepotency; however, within the category of growth needs, there is NO such thing.)v) Meta-Motivation Quotient (MMQ): proportion of motivation devoted to meta-motives (What is the implication of having high MMQ? (1) Psychologically healthy, (2) more pro-social [like considering interests of others before yoursel,], (3) individualism and self-identity)B.


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