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Chapter 6: JailsKey terms - Jail: locally operated correctional facilities that confine people before or after conviction - Total admission: the total number of people admitted to jail each year - Average daily population- the sum of the number of inmates in a jail or prisoneach day for a year - Release on Recognizance (ROR)- defendant provides written promise to appear in court, no cash or property bong required- Property bond- bond set in the form of tangible items- Deposit bail- court acts as a bond agent, defendant posts percentage of full amount- Conditional release- abide by a set of imposed requirements- Third-party custody- defendant assigned to an individual that promises to ensurefuture court appearance- Unsecured bond- defendant released on “credit”Pretrial Release & public safetymost defendants are granted pretrial release (66%)- A growing movement seeks to reduce the number of defendants granted pretrial release- Some states enacted danger laws which limit the right to bail to certain kinds ofoffenders Jail in History King Henry ordered the first jail built in 1166John Howard’s jail reform- Secure & sanitary structure- Jail inspections- Emphasis on reforming prisonersfirst jail in America was the Walnut Street Jail in Philadelphia 1773- Housed offenders with no regard to sex, age, or offense Modern American JailsFunctions - Detain people awaiting arraignment or trial- Confine offenders serving short sentences- Detain probation/parole violators- “Rabble Management:” non criminalServe as surrogate mental hospitals HomelessArchitecture & Inmate ManagementFirst-Generation Jails (linear design)- Jail with multiple-occupancy cells or dormitories that line corridors arranged like spokes- Inmate supervision is sporadic Second-Generation Jails (podural)- Emerged in the 1960s to replace old, run-down linear jails & improve visual surveillance- Staff remain in a secure control booth surrounded by inmates housed areas called pods and surveillance is remoteofficer & inmate = decrease in interaction Third-Generation Jails (direct supervision jails)- Inmates are housed in small groups staffed 24 hours a day by specially trained officers- Bars absent - 349 out 360 all jails Fourth-Generation Jails- Incorporates natural light into the dayroom; “borrowed light”- Brings program services, staff, volunteers, and visitors to the housing unit Jail Characteristics: InmatesAnnually, 13 million people go to jail2010 report found that the nation’s jails held 767,20 inmates- 13% of jail population are women- 62% involved in the trial process (not convicted)- Since 2000 the nation’s jail population has increased an average of 2.6% per yearJailsThere are 3,365 jails in the United states- Most jails are small, designed to hold 50 or fewer inmates- Some jails are very big like “mega-jails” in LA and NYC- 6% of all jails holds over 50% of all prisonersThe average cost to jail one inmate is more than $14,500Women & JailWomen compromise 13% of the jail populationThey are the largest growth group nationwideWomen face a number of special problems including:- Lack of separate housing- Low educational levels- Substance abuse- Pregnancy- Motherhood (80%) have kids under the age of 18- Inadequate medical programs Race & Inmates- From 1995 through mid-2011 the majority of local jail inmates were black or Hispanic - Whites comprise nearly 70% of the U.S. population, but only 43% of the jail population - Blacks make up 14% of the U.S. population, but make up 44% of the jail population Juveniles in Jail - 7,220 juveniles- Cities and states may detain juvenile offenders up to 12 hours in an adult jail before a court appearance Jail StaffThere are nearly 300,000 jail employees- 3 to 1 inmate to staff ratio Problems of jail staff:- Substandard pay- Low job prestige- High turnover- Inadequate systems for recruitment, selection, and

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U of A CMJS 3203 - Chapter 6: Jails

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