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I. Problems facing African Americans A. Disenfranchisement B. Segregation C. Violence D. Unemployment E. Lack of educationII. Things have been bad since 1890s, so why change now? A. Brown v. Board of Education 1. Separate but equal is not equal/okay 2. Creates inferiority 3. Overturns Plessy decision 4. Supreme Court opens up a wedge, a way forward B. Younger generation of activists 1. Wanted direct action, not just political action C. Little Rock, AK integrates schools 1. Blacks go to white schools, but whites don't go to black schools 2. Not a two-way segregation 3. Not expected to be a problem because a lot of things were already desegregated in Little Rock 4. Picked clean, smart, non-disruptive black students 5. Huge resistance to integration a. Governor of AK sends in National Guard to stop students from entering school b. Students are surrounded by mob of white residents, they can't enter the school c. Lasts for the whole first week of school 6. President is very angry about resistance, sends in troops to protect students and let them go to school a. This is being covered nationally and internationally - very bad image for America 7. The next year, the school district faces the same issues a. Little Rock shuts down all public schools instead of dealing with the problem again b. This happens all across the South in an attempt to resist gov't of federal power D. Absence of federal power means change doesn't happen E. Sit-ins 1. Require conscious law-breaking (civil disobedience) to create change 2. Greensboro, NC 1960 4 students want to integrate a lunch counter at Woolworth's a. Black customers aren't allowed to eat at Woolworth's b. Students wait to be served at lunch counter all day until store closes and then go home c. Get encouragement from fellow students and then they join them, up to 100 students d. Business is losing money because they have no room to serve white customers e. KKK harasses students, so students recruit football players to protect them & stay nonviolent 3. Non-violence only works when you get a response, you need a reaction from oppressors 4. Sit-ins are extremely popular for students in the 60s a. Economic pressure on businesses and media coverage b. Creates a great story 5. Students are arrested in huge numbers, filling city jails a. But they're being arrested for disorderly conduct/disturbing the peace and they want to be arrested for going against civil rights ordinances so they can appeal their arrest in courts b. Their conviction could be the start of changing the ordinances c. Whites have limited the usefulness of these tactics because they're not arresting students for going against civil rights 6. Montgomery Bus Boycotts a. Not riding buses to put huge economic pressure on buses b. Bus companies are going broke because blacks are the main people who ride them c. Law needs to change too 7. Freedom Rides a. Challenging the law that says blacks and whites on interstate travel can't sit together -DC to New Orleans, and at every stop whites use black facilities and blacks use white facilities -Met with huge resistance and violence b. Attacked by KKK and mobs c. Freedom riders are arrested for disturbing the peace, fill jails in MI 8. Birmingham a. Worst violence in the South, nothing at all is integrated even in 1963b. MLK decide to make change in the city c. Boycott all businesses that segregate, have marches/protests and get media coverage -No sympathy from president or media, says they need to wait -King finds himself isolated in prison with no allies/support d. MLK writes letter to convince people to not give up e. Decide to have a protest march with children, 10,11,12 years old -Gets media attention when police officers send out police dogs, hoses on innocent children -People are horrified f. Kennedy sends a Civil Rights Bill to Congress 9. March on Washington to take Civil Rights Bill up 10. President Johnson says Congress must pass bill to carry on Kennedy's LegacyIII. Civil Rights Bill A. Prohibits discrimination in employments and public facilities 1. Based on race, religion, sex, national origin B. This federal law should change everything, but it doesn't C. Congress does this because of the extreme pressure from below 1. Jails filled up, horrible images, sit-ins, economic pressure D. More creative responses must be thought of to fix other problems not covered by bill 1. Disenfranchisement, voting, violence 2. Voting is real power, you can't sit on a


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UMD HIST 201 - Problems facing African Americans

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