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History Study GuideEmancipation Proclamation: President Lincoln sent out this order on January 1, 1863that proclaimed the freedom of slaves in 10 of the rebellion states. It did not compensatethe owners; it did not outlaw slavery, and did not make ex-slaves citizens. This onlyapplied to radical states but freed 3.1 out of the 4 million slaves in the US. This is laterenforced by the 13th Amendment after the Civil War has ended. Sherman’s March to the Sea: In Georgia and South Carolina, General WilliamSherman had reserved large coastal tracts for liberated slaves and settled them on 40-acreplots. Sherman did not want to be bothered with refugees as his army crossed the region,but the freedmen assumed that Sherman’s order meant that the land was theirs. After thewar, resettlement became the responsibility of the Freedmen’s Bureau. Freedmen’s Bureau: March 1865. Divide confiscated land from the South into 40-acreparcels for rent/sale. This was to provide humanitarian relief and to establish schools forfreed slaves. The government was not trying to take care of all of these people for free sothey had to work in order to receive these benefits. Ten Percent Plan: December 8, 1863. It restored all rights to Southerners that take aloyalty oath- Once 10% of that state’s population took this oath, they could establish astate government. Colfax Massacre: April 13, 1873 in Colfax, Louisiana. A group of armed whiteDemocrats overpower Republican freedmen and state militia (also black) trying tocontrol the Great Paris courthouse. Most of the freedmen were killed after theysurrendered and nearly 50 were later killed as they were held as prisoners. Described asthe worst racial violence during Reconstruction. Redeemers: White southern democrats that swept the 1875 elections and took control ofMississippi. By 1876 Reconstruction was largely over and Republican governments,backed by token US military units, remained in only 3 southern states: Louisiana, SouthCarolina, and Florida. They sought to oust the Republican coalition of freedmen,carpetbaggers, and scalawags. Crédit Mobilier: 1872, a sham corporation set up by the Union Pacific Railroad tosecure government grants at an enormous profit. Organizers of the scheme protected itfrom federal investigation by providing gifts of Credit Mobilier stock to powerfulmembers of Congress. Dawes Act: Congress passed The Dawes Act in 1887 to reform U.S. treatment ofAmerican Indians. The act divided reservations into homestead-style plots for families orindividuals. The act was partially a response to popular outrage over the mistreatment ofAmerican Indians, especially after Helen Hunt Jackson exposed such abuses in her bookA Century of Dishonor (1881). While perhaps well intentioned, the act was disastrous: itwas rooted in a Western concept of property-ownership that was foreign to manyAmericans Indians, whose social structure was more tribal and communitarian.Moreover, the new system was not conducive to the nomadic lifestyle of the plainsIndians. The act exemplifies the ongoing struggle between the Federal government andthe Plains Indians in the late-nineteenth century, as well as the role of whiteethnocentrism in complicating that relationship. Buffalo Bill Cody: In 1876, General Cluster had led 210 men of the 7th Calvary in an ill-considered assault on Sitting Bull’s camp beside Little Big Horn River in Montana.Buffalo Bill, in his traveling Wild West performances enacted a revenge killing of theCheyenne warrior Yellow Hand. He featured himself scalping a Cheyenne, Cody depictedthis a triumph for the civilization in the West. Vertical Integration: When companies would gain ownership of all aspects of themanufacturing process from raw materials through marketing and transportation. Thiswould control costs of production and give the company more power and success. This iswhat Rockefeller did with his Standard Oil Company. Standard Oil Trust: Rockefeller bought into other oil companies and materials thatmade his business even more successful because he had less competition and morecontrol over materials and the production/selling of his oil. He bought up a bunch ofsmaller oil companies and developed the powerhouse of the Standard Oil Company. Thesmall companies were forced to buy stock from the larger company and submit to themanagement of a central board of directors. Andrew Carnegie: A powerhouse in the steel industry. He said that industrialization wasgoing to raise the standard of living and it did. He succeeded through vertical integrationand created a monopoly of the steel industry. He succeeded greatly and become one ofthe wealthiest people of his time and even now. Patronage: This especially began in the 1820’s where politicians would grantgovernment jobs and favors to their supporters. They abused this to create and maintainstrong party loyalties. After 1870, a merit-based civil service exam was introduced toreduce patronage. Skyscrapers: Buildings begin to start to be built up instead of out in cities in order tokeep up with the increasing population from high amounts of immigration. The mostfamous and biggest skyscrapers were built in New York City and were used for housingand for companies Streetcar Suburbs: Due to the development of public Transportation, a rising middleclass was able to move out of urban cities and develop suburbs. Still close to the city forwork, people were able to live in a better area filled with less people and more space forfamilies. The only reason this could be developed was because of public transportation,the streetcars, otherwise people would be isolated from work and would have no money. Interstate Commerce Commission: Passed in 1887 under President Cleveland. This actcounteracted Wabash v. Illinois, which has struck down states’ authority to regulaterailroads. This new act charged with investigating interstate shipping, forcing railroads tomake their rates public, and when necessary suing in court to force companies to reduce“unjust or unreasonable” rates. After 2 decades of the ICC, courts soon sided with therailroads 15 times and


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UMD HIST 201 - Study Guide

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