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The Protestant and Catholic Reformations Vocab 1 Martin Luther 1483 1546 a stubborn and determined catalyst credited with starting the revolution 2 95 Theses on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences written by Martin Luther in October 1517 it protests the clerical abuses found within the Catholic church especially indulgences 3 Wittenberg where Martin Luther posted his 95 Theses 4 Confraternities organization of the lay people of the Catholic Church who promoted special works of Christian charity or piety They had their own chapels and priests who would say prayers for the deceased of their group 5 Corpus Christi a public festival dedicated to the Eucharist that was established in the 1300s There was a public procession of the different confraternities Following the Corpus Christi mass the Eucharist hosts would be carried throughout the town until the priest blessed them and everyone celebrated They had plays on moving wagons and even reenacted the crucifixion of Christ 6 Youth Abbeys confraternities created by young people They had festivals to create mischief like Halloween where they d dress up They also served the purpose of enforcing social norms 7 Thomas a Kempis wrote The Imitation of Christ 8 The Imitation of Christ written by Thomas a Kempis it told people to withdraw from the world and practice religious life and contemplation so as to achieve salvation easier 9 Anticlericalism opposition to the clergy by the people because their behaviors often didn t match up to their prestigious religious position Bishops rarely lived or resided in diocese like they were supposed to held multiple dioceses and had the proper training and knowledge of Church religious law Paying for masses made the Church richer Pope lived lavishly Selling indulgences direct forgiveness of sins 10 Indulgences The direct forgiveness of sins if paid for 11 Christian Humanism brought humanism into the Church when suspicious about the discontent of the lay people They hoped to uncover what they thought of as a pure more authentic Bible based form of Christianity Desire of spiritual experience 12 Meaux Circle group of Christian humanists who discussed and sought a new bible based faith for themselves and spread it to the laity In 1512 they published the French translation of the Bible and called in new ideas without calling the need of the Church into question 13 Diet of Worms an assembly of the Roman Catholic Empire in 1521 where they asked Luther to recant his beliefs about the Catholic Church but Luther refused to leading to his excommunication 14 Katharina von Bora 1499 1552 an ex nun who married Luther in 1525 15 On Christian Liberty On the Freedom of the Christian Man pamphlets written by Martin Luther on how Christians should understand the 10 Commandments Luther s ideas led to other countries like France and Germany to pick up on his practices and ideas 16 John Calvin 1509 1564 young French lawyer Christian humanist connected to the Meaux circle Fully adapted Lutheran ideas and created The Institution of Christian Religion in 1536 where he published the concept of predestination He also laid out a framework for a theocracy government led by the elect for the elect Geneva became a theocracy and proved to be a valuable foothold in the spread of Calvanism 17 Anabaptists another religious group that was more politically radical than any other group 18 Council of Trent spanned from 1545 1563 it was held in 25 sessions and would hopefully solve the different religious problems and bring Lutherans and Catholics back into one church However that didn t happen so they solidified the boundaries between the different religious groups Catholics upheld the pope clergy necessity of good works for salvation the equal importance of faith and works clerical celibacy and the religious status of the clergy in the face of Lutheran ideas The Council of Trent also worked to reform and repair the abuses of the Church and clergy and control bishops and monks making sure they weren t abusing their powers 19 Society of Jesus Jesuits started by St Ignatius of Loyola who abandoned his life as a soldier it was a brotherhood of priests who fought against Lutheranism The pope approved of this society in 1540 before the Council of Trent The Wars of Religion Vocab 1 Institutes of Christian Religion published 1531 written by John Calvin which laid out the outline for the ideal Christian religion 2 German Peasant s War began in 1524 in Switzerland and southern Germany where there were increased tensions between peasants and their landlords Lords were looking for increased control over the peasants so they attacked peasants benefits and instilled humiliating new taxes and duties on them even though they considered themselves free farmers In 1524 it turned into a war of liberation that swelled into france Switzerland and Austria where over 300 000 peasants took part in it 3 Hans Muller 1490 1525 former mercenary hired to fight in the French army He returned to Germany when uprisings started where he brought successes on the peasant s side with his invention of wagon forts chained overturned wagons together to use as a fort to protect against cavalry and to store their weapons and the capture of Freiburg Muller was captured and executed in August 1525 4 Huldrych Zwingli 1484 1531 Along with Luther he articulated the belief that Christians could act as their own priest read the Bible and achieve their own form of salvation If everyone is equal to God then everyone should be equal on Earth or at least free of suppressive landlord Twelve Articles of the Peasants published in March 1525 and was a powerful way to justify the peasants rebellion It was empowering the Lutheran message that upheld revolt and the importance of religious communities 5 6 Affair of the Posters started in 1534 in France when anti Catholic posters appeared in popular and public places like Paris Authorities burned all those who were involved with the posters and Catholics saw this as an attack on their beliefs and integrity of the religious community Protestantism was driven underground and completely banned in 1551 7 Huguenots French Calvanists Launched a ministry in France 1555 which attracted converts of all of France s society By 1562 there were 1 5 2 million practicing Huguenots in France They looked forward to the day where they could worship openly and assure everyone s salvation They defied the official ban of Protestantism started worshipping in public and

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BC HS 08101 - The Protestant and Catholic Reformations Vocab

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