BC HS 08101 - History Midterm Key Term Review

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History Midterm Key Term ReviewThe Norse in Greenland1. Iceland – 2. Erik the Red – while exiled, sailed west to North America to find land. He named that land Greenland and convinced people to sail there after his exile was over.3. Greenland – discovered by 3 sailors who were blown off course while trying to get to Iceland. A lot of forests and land for farming. People saw Greenland as a source to gaining higher status in that the first to land in Greenland would be more powerful because they could acquire the most land.4. Medieval Climate Anomaly – in 950, the climate became a little warmer, causing the sea ice around Greenland to melt and the overall climate to be less harsh for the Norse settlers5. Eastern Settlement6. Western Settlement7. Disko Bay – the summer gathering place for walruses, which the Norse hunted for their tusks and hide. (Tusks = ivory used for art in Europe; expensive & Hide = used to make strong ropes)8. L’Anse aux Meadows – founded by Lief Erikson in 1,000 and is located in Finland but wasn’t inhabited for a long time because it was not profitable due to its long distance from Iceland and Green9. Skraeling – literally means “weak,” where natives to Arctic lands10. Ancestral Beothuk11. Dorset – inhabited Quebec, were unrelated to the other Arctic people and disappeared when the Norse left. They might have traded with the Norse12. Thule – hunters and whalers originally from Alaska who moved east for more hunting grounds and land. They replaced the Dorsets and the Norse had most sustained contact with the ThulesChristians and Muslims in the Medieval MediterraneanThe MongolsThe Medieval World SystemThe Black Death and the Medieval WorldThe World After the Black DeathThe Italian Renaissance And the Mediterranean World1. Renaissance – the time of culminating social/economic trends that was mostly funded bythe Mediterranean trade. The wealthy and literate citizens became patrons of renaissance art and thought2. Florence – operated the western half of the Mediterranean used for trade. Traded wool and grain in Africa and received gold in return  created their own currency called florins, allowing wealthy Florentine merchants to become bankers. 3. Mamluk – ruling regime in Egypt that traded spices, silks and other products from the Indian Ocean with the Florentines in return for slaves Florentines received from Africa4. Ottomans – a growing power throughout the Renaissance, who ate away at the Byzantine Empire. Conquered Constantinople in 1453 and Egypt in 15175. Gold Florins – made out of gold obtained from Africa. Each Florine contained ¼ oz of gold and allowed wealthy Florentine merchants to become bankers6. Medici Family – largest banking family with many branches in Europe. They facilitated trade and bank rolled the opulent lifestyles and wars of European rulers. Profited by charging interest (Christians looked down upon this). Essentially ruled Florence and became the dukes of Florence in 15327. Lucca – Silk manufacturing in Italy started in the city of Lucca, which faced a lot of competition from the Chinese silk industry. After the Black Death, the Italian silk industry quickly grew and made 400,000 florins each year8. Popolo – a middle class started to emerge in the 12th century. The skilled middle class workers were called the popolo and they formed guilds for each different job (Merchant’sguild = 1182). 9. Guilds – formed by the popolo and were able to back up the middle class’ workers viewed a communal government where everyone would participate (like a republic). Guilds were put into power when the popolos took over the government completely10. Purgatory – after death, people would undergo a period of torture before rising to heaven. Since people wanted to reduce their time in purgatory, they would do good works, give charity to the needy, perform the act of penance, go on pilgrimages, and turn to the church by buying masses in the name of someone recently deceased and endowing churches/monasteries11. Ladder of Salvation – climbed to get out of purgatory into heavenRenaissance Intellectual Culture and Humanism1. Humanism – intellectual movement that defined the renaissance, centered on the intense interest in the Greek and Roman world, especially literature because they provided a set of moral values that would allow people to live more fulfilling lives. Study of the humanities.2. Carolingian Renaissance – Origins of humanisms were in the middle ages. Many of the Latin works of Roman writers have survived because of Charlemagne, who had the ancient texts copied and corrected3. Twelfth-Century Renaissance – Humanism flourished again as Italians expanded into Spain, Sicily and the Holy Land. The Ancient Roman legal texts were rediscovered and they influenced the church and its laws.4. Francesco Petrarch (1304-1374) – popularized humanism in Italy. He felt he was livingin a new age that would see the revival of Roman culture and literature. After his father died, he lived off of his father’s inheritance, learned Latin, an worked to reconstruct the work of Roman authors, which were handwritten and found in libraries. He searched for and recovered missing works5. Livy – wrote a 142 volume history of the city of Rome from the beginning of the city to 9AD6. Cicero – lived in 1 century BC and is considered to be Rome’s greatest orator and writer.His letter to his friend in Vienna was rediscovered by Petrarch7. Niccolo Niccoli (1364-1437) – patron that supported humanist scholars. He bought published editions of books humanists published. By the time he died, he had 800 books and donated them to Florence to create a library. 8. Apostolic Library of the Vatican – inspired by Niccoli’s library, the pope started to collect books for the library and supported humanists9. Coluccio Salutati (1331-1406) – became chancellor of the republic of Florence who tookup Petrarch’s virtue of eloquence and virtue and articulated civic humanism. 10. Civic Humanism - Argued that a virtuous life was one of political engagement because itwas the best outlet for eloquence and virtue. Civic humanists imitated Cicero and looked to his Roman Republic as the ideal form of government. Gave people an enormous amount of civic pride11. Leonardo Bruni (1370-1444) – described Florence’s descent from a republic. He praised the city of Florence for outstanding Roman heritage and

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BC HS 08101 - History Midterm Key Term Review

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