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PSY 388 – 034. FLUIDITY OF SEXUALITY- Women’s sexuality tends to be more fluid and capable of changing over time.- Social and cultural factors may influence women’s sexualityo Living in same-sex institutions is linked to increased likelihood of same-sex erotic relationship between women.- Does fluidity mean that all women are bisexual? Or that they do not have sexual orientation?o Noo Sexual fluidity is seen as a component of women’s sexuality in line with theirsexual orientationo Sexual orientation is not the only factor determining her attraction- Does fluidity mean that sexual orientation is a matter of choice? o Noo Women report changes/shifts in their sexual response are unexpected and beyond their controlo Findings suggest that “reparative therapy” does not work Reparative therapy is not effective. If someone is homosexual, they are homosexual. You can’t change their preference through strategicmethods.- Changes in attitude-behavior consistency in sexuality is greater for women than meno Women are more likely to have sex when they do not feel like it or to have sex when they do feel like ito Inconsistent in their reports of sexual feelings, identifications and actionsWOMEN & SEXUAL ORIENTATION- Women are more likely to change their sexual identity.o Heterosexual identity to lesbian identityo Lesbian to heterosexual or bisexual identityo Less common in menMEASURING SEXUAL ACTIVITY- What is the best way to study sexual activity?o Most studies use self-report surveys and interviewsWHAT ARE SOME CHALLENGES TO THIS SURVEY METHOD?- No way to verify that individual is being honest in their self-report.- They may not understand correctly what is being asked, thus they may not respond appropriately.- They may not remember- They may distort/exaggerate the truthPSY 388 – 03o We may see this when we ask how many partners a man/woman has had…a man may exaggerate, where a woman may underestimate- Distort reality – exaggerating or denying sexual activity- Unable to remember accurately events that are long past- Issues estimating frequencies and time spent in certain activities- Issues in generalizing results for sexual activity/behavior to the general population- Volunteer participants tend to be more experienced and less inhibited in their sex lives than most peopleSEXUAL ACTIVITY: HETEROSEXUAL INTERCOURSE- 1940 (Kinsey) *Film available on this studyo Premarital sexual intercourse by age 25o 33% womeno 71% men- 1970 (Hunt)o 67% womeno 97% men- 2005 (Mosher, Anjani & Jones, 2005) (by age 24)o 92% womeno 89% meno +3% men and women had oral sex but not intercourseSEXUAL ACTIVITY & YOUTH- In the U.S., 25% of adolescents have had intercourse by age 15- Women’s sexual attitudes and behaviors have changed more than young men’s over timeo Men + women became more approving of sexual activity but strongest changes seen among womeno 1970’s: First intercourse @ age 19 (women)o 1990’s: @ age 15o 1950’s: 13% sexually activeo 1990’s: 47% sexually activityo 1970’s: 44% had engaged in oral sexo 1990’s: 69%- Men + women aged 30 – 44o 6 – 8 female sexual partners in their lifetime (men)o 4 male sexual partners (women)SEXUALITY ACTIVITY BY ETHNICITY/RACE- Women ages 15 – 44 : 15 or more male sexual partnerso Latina – 4%PSY 388 – 03o European American – 10%o African American – 9%- Men ages 15 – 44 : 15 or more female sexual partnerso Latino – 18%o European American – 22%o African American – 34%INTERCOURSE: REASONS & REACTIONSWhy?- Women: affection- Men: curiosityReactions- Reactions after intercourse- Women: negative emotionso Guilt o Sorrowo Disappointment- Men: positive emotionso Excitemento Joyfulo MaturityMARRIED & SEX- Married couples in mid 20’s o 2 – 3x per weeko Frequency declines over yearso Both men + women express high levels of marital sex satisfaction, but women report slightly less satisfaction- Extramarital sex: o Many men + women who have had extramarital sex have done so with only 1 partnero > 80% of women + 65 – 85% of men of all ages report having no extramarital affairsHOMOSEXUAL ACTIVITY- Kinsey’s Report (1948) o 1 out of 3 men (37%)o 1 out of 8 women (13%)- Hunt’s Report (1974) o 1 out of 4 men (20 – 25%)o 1 out of 10 women (10%)o 1 out of 4 unmarried women (20%)- Mosher (2005) o Men aged 15 – 44, 6% reported having oral or anal sex with another men in their lifetimeo Women aged 15 – 44, 11%Had at least one homosexualexperience leading to orgasmPSY 388 – 03- Gender differences in homosexual behavior are similar to those of heterosexualo Males report more homosexual sexual activities with more partners than females doo Females are more likely to want to be involved in long-term, emotionally close relationshipGENDER: MASTURBATION- In Kinsey’s and Hunt’s report, almost all males reported masturbating, and only 1/3of females reported having masturbated- Males masturbate at an earlier ageo Masturbation – manipulation of the genitals to produce sexual pleasure- Masturbation may be linked to level of orgasmo Women who do not masturbate may have difficulty in reaching orgasmo Why do you think this is?SEXUAL ORIENTATION- Sexual orientation – sexual partner preference- Heterosexual – straight- Homosexual – men = gay, women = lesbian- Bisexual – likes same-sex and opposite sex partners, bothMany myths/stereotypes on homosexuality, bisexuality used to justify discrimination. Howso?- Homosexuals can’t raise children- Heterosexual male can’t have a gay friend, because he may get hit on - Bisexual is not real, it’s just a

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