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PSY 388-003DEVELOPING GENDER IDENTITY AND INTERSECTING IDENTITIESWHY DO (OR SHOULD) WE CARE?Color scheme based on gender.Girl Features:- Delicate- Calmer- Softer - BeautifulWhy do you think this is? Sense of projection, activation of stereotype.Objective measures of the size and health of the infants showed no differences between males and females.Girls are depicted as passive. DID YOU KNOW- 1910’s – pink was for boys; blue was for girls- 1940’s – colors switched, pop culture influenceGIRL? BOY?1884 – Boys wore dresses until age 6 or 7; the time of their first haircut. (in the U.S.) Franklin D. Roosevelt WHAT IS DEVELOPMENT?Development – predictable & orderly changes over time due to life experiences & biological effects.PSY 388-003Developmental Psychology – the study of changes in human beings over the course of their life.GENERAL DEVELOPMENTAL STAGESEach developmental stage has a developmental “task”- Adolescence o Task: Identity vs. Confusiono Where are you headed in life?- Emerging Adulthood o Task: Identity and Intimacyo Career? Relationships?HOW DO INFANTS DISTINGUISH BETWEEN WOMEN AND MEN?- Infant’s thoughts are difficult to study.Approach- Show infants objects (e.g., photo of faces)- Measure level of attention paid to the object- Typically, when infants grow bored, their gaze shifts from the object (perhaps to a novel object)DEVELOPMENT DURING CHILDHOOD- Earlier than 6 months of age – show preference for female over male faces.o Due to experience with each type of face.Infancy (age 0 - 1 yr.)Childhood (age 1 -12 yrs.)Adolescence (age 13 - 17 yrs.)Emerging Adulthood (age 18 - 29 yrs.)Young Adulthood (age 30 - 39 yrs.)Middle Adulthood (age 40 - 64 yrs.)Old Age (age 65+)PSY 388-003- Infants (7 – 12 months) distinguish between women’s and men’s faces.o Attend primarily to hair length (distinguishing cue)- By age 24 months, children show:o Some knowledge of gender-typical activities (e.g., cooking)o Differences in gender related vocabulary (his/her)o Accuracy in gender labelingTHE SEQUENCE OF CHILDHOOD GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT- At age 3, most children lack gender constancy.- Being a male/female is a permanent, unchangeable feature.- Believe they can change their gender or changes in hair length or clothing will change gender.Gender constancy – comprised of:1. Gender stability - Gender as a stable personal characteristic.- Example: “I was a girl when I was a baby, and will be a woman when I grow up.”2. Gender consistency - Retain gender even when physical features/behaviors change.- Example: “I will remain a boy even if I grow long hair or put on a dress.”Children develop gender stability before gender consistency.LATER DEVELOPMENT- For most children, gender development is complete by age 6.- Around age 11, boys spend more time in gender-typed activities and with other boys.- Girls participated in a greater variety of activities and interacted with boys and girls.- By middle childhood, children exhibit some stability in terms of gender-typed patterns of activitiesGENDER IDENTITY DEVELOPMENTGender Identity – identifying and accepting the self as male or female.Gender Role – behaviors typically associated with males or females.- Girls – allowed to cry- Boys – lack of affectionWHAT COULD INFLUENCE GENDER IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT?PSY 388-003Gender identity continues to develop during adolescence and into adulthood.- Family structure- Transitions with each stage- Social structure- Environment (regional influences)- Biological factors (e.g. puberty)- MediaBIOLOGICAL FACTORS AND GENDER DEVELOPMENT- Configuration of external genitalia- Contributes to categorizing and identity- Prenatal hormoneso Influence brain developmento Potentially related to gender-typed childhood behavior- Even when within normal range:o Girls high in ‘masculine’ behavior had mothers with higher levels of testosterone during pregnancy.TRANSACTIONAL LMODEL OF PARENTAL SOCIALIZATION- Girls and boys have some early differences in temperamento Boys – (surgency) – more smiling, laughter, active early on.o Girls – (effortful control) – focused attention on tasks, inhibit certain actionso Differences in tendencies may elicit certain responses from caregivers, thus, in turn, elicit certain parent behaviors.  Example: for boys, if they are smiling, the caretaker will be influenced to smile back. Child influences caretaker, caretaker influences childBabies may arrive primed to identify as male/female, but gender identity is not entirely dependent on any biological factor.FAMILY ENVIRONMENT AND GENDER DEVELOPMENT- Family context is critically important.o Both overt and covert beliefs about gender- Differential treatment by parents for boys/girls- Traditional vs. Non-traditional homeso Influence on gender role flexibilityHOW DO PARENTS CONTRIBUTE TO CHILDREN’S EARLY GENDER LEARNING?4 Processes1. Modeling – children observe parents’ behavior2. Differential treatment of sons and daughtersPSY 388-0033. Opportunities parents encourage – toys, play activities, household chores4. Parent monitor and supervise children’s friends and activities- Hold and communicate different expectations:o Males: Stronger, firmer, better coordinated, alerto Females: Softer, delicate, finer featured- Fathers tend to be more traditional vs. mothers- Spend less time with childreno But, most influential in endorsing traditional gender roles, especially for sons- Ethnic differences: o African-American fathers tend to be more egalitarian vs. fathers from other ethnic groupso Hispanic parents allow more freedom and privileges for sons than for daughters – expected to do more household chores.Single – parent household- Without fathers o Children closer to motherso Boys show more feminine but no less masculine behaviors than children from two-parent familieso Girls develop less traditional gender roles Autonomy- Children with lesbian mothers: o Experience less gender-stereotyped environmentso Hold less traditional gender-stereotyped attitudes, egalitarianSO IN WHAT AREA SPECIFICALLY DO WE SEE PARENTS TREAT SONS AND DAUGHTERS DIFFERENTLY?- Choosing toys- Dressing- Assigning tasks/chores- Type of interactiono Girls – encouraged to talk more; Boys – encouraged to roughhouse or play actively.FAMILY ENVIRONMENT AND GENDER DEVELOPMENT- Many parents endorse equality, but still serve as gendered role models.o Types of employmento Division of household chores-

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