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Chordates- 3 groups invertebrates-Lancelets- Bladelike, marine, no cranium (skull)-Tunicates- stationary; sac-like, no cranium-Hagfish- jawless fish; marineInvertebrates - Lancelets- Tunicates- HagfishVertebrates- Most fishes- Amphibians- Reptiles- Birds- MammalsGroups of fish- Bony fish- Cartilaginous- Hagfish- Lamprey- Bony Fish - operculum covering gills (gas exchange) movement allows breathing without swimming- Swim bladder- floatation without swimming; sac-filled with gas- Lateral line system- row of sensory organs; detect water pressure change( prey detection)Cartilaginous fishes- Cartilage skeleton- Fast swimmers- Poor eye sight- Poor sense of smell- Lateral line system- No operculum( constantly swim)Hagfish- No jaws- No backbone- Represent early fishes marineLamprey- Has backbone - Eel shaped, attach to sides of fish (suck blood)Amphibians- First vertebrates to colonize land- Need water to complete life cycle/ lay eggs ( prevents moisture loss from eggs)- Also terrestrial- Most skin- helps with gas exchange/ lung function- Transitional organism – lobe finned fish(muscular)fish Reptiles (non-avian)- Lizards- Snakes- Alligators- Turtles- crocodileAvian- evolved from 2 legged dinosaurs - endothermic flight( honey combed bones, decrease in internal organTerrestrial adaptation- amniotic egg- has all nutrients; allows embryonic; development; life cycle completed on land- scaled; water proof skin (non-avian)- prevents dehydrationRegulating body temp.Ectothermic VS. Endothermic- absorb heat - use own internal - Use environment to metabolism to regulate body temp.Regulate body temp.Mammals- terrestrial and aquatic- first-small, nocturnal insect eaters(active at night)- diversified after dinosaurs extinction- common traits- hair (temp. insulation regulation)- mammary gland (nurse young)Major groups of mammals- Monotremes - Marsupials- Eutherians Monotremes- egg laying EX. Duck billed Platypus Marsupials- pouch mammals- embryo completes development in pouch EX. Kangaroos Eutherians- placenta longer association between mother and offspring EX. HumansHuman Evolution- Homo genus- all member are considered humans. Various species lived together from about 2.5mya-1mya- Only surviving species today ( Homo Sapiens)Fossil evidence- 1.8mya; 5 species of Homo Sapiens coexisted in AfricaPlant Anatomy and Function- Angiosperm life cycle (double fertilization)- Pollination- haploid sperm(pollen) unites with haploid egg- diploid egg- Seed formation- Seed- embryo enclosed by endosperm- Endosperm- food containing tissue( nourishes embryo)- Seed coat- protective coating- Cotyledons-seed leaves- Seed dormancy- after seed develops; development and growth stops until conditions are favorable, increase odds of new offspring.- Fruit-thickened, mature ovary- Fleshy fruit-EX.Tomatoes,pears,apples,oranges,watermelon,strawberries,grapes- Dry fruit- EX. Beans, nuts, grains- Seed germination- roots emerge, shoots emerge, leaves emergeAngiospermsMonocots VS. Dicots (eudicots)-One cotyledon (seed leaf) -Two Cotyledon (Seed Leaves)Leaves)Plant organs- Tissues working together- Water, minerals, photosynthesisMain plant structures/organs:- Roots- Shoots- Leaves Root system-all roots Shoot system-stems, leaves, leaves Root system- allows plant to obtain water/ minerals-Root Hairs- smaller extension; increase surface area-Monocots-fibrous root system-Dicots- larger man roots (tap root) stores starches EX. Carrots, Sweet potatoes, and turnips Stems- mainly above ground support leaves/flowers- Terminal bud- tip of stem; actively lengthening- Axillary bud- sides of stem; usually dormantApical dominance- hormones produced by terminal bud inhibit growth of axillary, buds *Plant taller than bushierPruning-brushier growth*eliminates terminal budsModified stems- Runners- horizontal stems; asexual reproduction Ex. Strawberries- Rhizomes- Large horizontal underground stems; stores food; new plant production EX. GingerTubers- Enlarge ribosomes Ex. Potatoes - Bulb- modified stem EX. OnionLeaves- Site of photosynthesis- Blade- main part of leaf- Petiole- joins leaf to stem EX. Celery stalk- Monocots- leaf veins parallel- Dicots- leaf veins branchedLeaf arrangement- Simple- Compound- Doubly compoundModified leaves- Tendrils- climbing- Cactus spinesOther leaf structures- Stomata- openings in bottom of leaf (gas exchange)Plant Tissues - Vascular- Dermal- GroundVascular Tissue- Xylem- tubes; water transport (root- stem-leaves)- Phloem- tubes; sugar transport (leaves- other plant parts)Vascular bundles- Monocots- scattered- Dicots- ringDermal Tissues- on outside; protection, prevents water loss- Epidermis- outer tissue layer- Cuticle- waxy coating on leaf; prevents water lossGround Tissue system- on inside; photosynthesis, storage, support- Mesophyll- ground tissue in leaves; photosynthesis- Cortex- ground tissue in roots; storage; takes up water/

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Ole Miss BISC 104 - Notes

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