Unformatted text preview:

Chordates- 3 groups invertebrates-Lancelets- Bladelike, marine, no cranium (skull)-Tunicates- stationary; sac-like, no cranium-Hagfish- jawless fish; marineInvertebrates - Lancelets- Tunicates- HagfishVertebrates- Most fishes- Amphibians- Reptiles- Birds- MammalsGroups of fish- Bony fish- Cartilaginous- Hagfish- Lamprey- Bony Fish - operculum covering gills (gas exchange) movement allows breathing without swimming- Swim bladder- floatation without swimming; sac-filled with gas- Lateral line system- row of sensory organs; detect water pressure change( prey detection)Cartilaginous fishes- Cartilage skeleton- Fast swimmers- Poor eye sight- Poor sense of smell- Lateral line system- No operculum( constantly swim)Hagfish- No jaws- No backbone- Represent early fishes marineLamprey- Has backbone - Eel shaped, attach to sides of fish (suck blood)Amphibians- First vertebrates to colonize land- Need water to complete life cycle/ lay eggs ( prevents moisture loss from eggs)- Also terrestrial- Most skin- helps with gas exchange/ lung function- Transitional organism – lobe finned fish(muscular)fish Reptiles (non-avian)- Lizards- Snakes- Alligators- Turtles- crocodileAvian- evolved from 2 legged dinosaurs - endothermic flight( honey combed bones, decrease in internal organTerrestrial adaptation- amniotic egg- has all nutrients; allows embryonic; development; life cycle completed on land- scaled; water proof skin (non-avian)- prevents dehydrationRegulating body temp.Ectothermic VS. Endothermic- absorb heat - use own internal - Use environment to metabolism to regulate body temp.Regulate body temp.Mammals- terrestrial and aquatic- first-small, nocturnal insect eaters(active at night)- diversified after dinosaurs extinction- common traits- hair (temp. insulation regulation)- mammary gland (nurse young)Major groups of mammals- Monotremes - Marsupials- Eutherians Monotremes- egg laying EX. Duck billed Platypus Marsupials- pouch mammals- embryo completes development in pouch EX. Kangaroos Eutherians- placenta longer association between mother and offspring EX. HumansHuman Evolution- Homo genus- all member are considered humans. Various species lived together from about 2.5mya-1mya- Only surviving species today ( Homo Sapiens)Fossil evidence- 1.8mya; 5 species of Homo Sapiens coexisted in AfricaPlant Anatomy and Function- Angiosperm life cycle (double fertilization)- Pollination- haploid sperm(pollen) unites with haploid egg- diploid egg- Seed formation- Seed- embryo enclosed by endosperm- Endosperm- food containing tissue( nourishes embryo)- Seed coat- protective coating- Cotyledons-seed leaves- Seed dormancy- after seed develops; development and growth stops until conditions are favorable, increase odds of new offspring.- Fruit-thickened, mature ovary- Fleshy fruit-EX.Tomatoes,pears,apples,oranges,watermelon,strawberries,grapes- Dry fruit- EX. Beans, nuts, grains- Seed germination- roots emerge, shoots emerge, leaves emergeAngiospermsMonocots VS. Dicots (eudicots)-One cotyledon (seed leaf) -Two Cotyledon (Seed Leaves)Leaves)Plant organs- Tissues working together- Water, minerals, photosynthesisMain plant structures/organs:- Roots- Shoots- Leaves Root system-all roots Shoot system-stems, leaves, leaves Root system- allows plant to obtain water/ minerals-Root Hairs- smaller extension; increase surface area-Monocots-fibrous root system-Dicots- larger man roots (tap root) stores starches EX. Carrots, Sweet potatoes, and turnips Stems- mainly above ground support leaves/flowers- Terminal bud- tip of stem; actively lengthening- Axillary bud- sides of stem; usually dormantApical dominance- hormones produced by terminal bud inhibit growth of axillary, buds *Plant taller than bushierPruning-brushier growth*eliminates terminal budsModified stems- Runners- horizontal stems; asexual reproduction Ex. Strawberries- Rhizomes- Large horizontal underground stems; stores food; new plant production EX. GingerTubers- Enlarge ribosomes Ex. Potatoes - Bulb- modified stem EX. OnionLeaves- Site of photosynthesis- Blade- main part of leaf- Petiole- joins leaf to stem EX. Celery stalk- Monocots- leaf veins parallel- Dicots- leaf veins branchedLeaf arrangement- Simple- Compound- Doubly compoundModified leaves- Tendrils- climbing- Cactus spinesOther leaf structures- Stomata- openings in bottom of leaf (gas exchange)Plant Tissues - Vascular- Dermal- GroundVascular Tissue- Xylem- tubes; water transport (root- stem-leaves)- Phloem- tubes; sugar transport (leaves- other plant parts)Vascular bundles- Monocots- scattered- Dicots- ringDermal Tissues- on outside; protection, prevents water loss- Epidermis- outer tissue layer- Cuticle- waxy coating on leaf; prevents water lossGround Tissue system- on inside; photosynthesis, storage, support- Mesophyll- ground tissue in leaves; photosynthesis- Cortex- ground tissue in roots; storage; takes up water/


View Full Document

Ole Miss BISC 104 - Notes

Download Notes
Our administrator received your request to download this document. We will send you the file to your email shortly.
Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view Notes and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Notes 2 2 and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?