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Exam 2 Notes Trust vs Mistrust For infants trust is a state of feeling confident that they are valued and their needs will be met Trust is fostered in infancy and established by 18 months of age through mother and infant interactions Biologically we are programmed to be wary of harsh stimuli babies startle reflex mono reflex Socially we are or are not protected from harsh stimuli caregivers Psychologically we learn that the world is generally safe or not safe The ability of the caregiver to soothe the infant is central to developing trust and an attachment to the caregiver 2 components found in infant and mother interactions that foster trust 1 matching presence of same or similar behaviors between mother and child still face baby experiment 2 synchrony movement from one emotional state to another in a fluid pattern when a baby breaks a stare between it and its mom it switches to a different emotional state and the mother fluidly follows the baby s lead As time goes by mother and baby learn to regulate the amount of time hat passes between the expression of need and satisfying the need Longitudinal study mothers responses to babies cries were monitored over a year babies with mothers who responded quickly and consistently in the early months were more relaxed less anxious and cried less in the later months Attachment the strong emotional bond that infants form with their mothers It is an intense emotional relationship that emerges over time John Bowlby originator of the attachment theory Mary Ainsworth 2 factors that babies need for survival 1 Protection 2 Exploration These are 2 conflicting drives that are resolved by the infant using the mother as a secure base Attachment Theory States Quality of infant attachment will be determined by quality of early caregiving Quality of early attachment will affect child s later relationships Securely attached use the mother as secure base may or may not experience distress at mother leaving and usually stop exploration seek contact during reunion and crying is reduced caregivers are warm responsive and consistent in meeting the child s needs 60 of children Insecurely attached avoidant Unresponsive to parent Rarely cry during separation and avoid mother at reunion Indifferent to or dislike physical contact 15 of children caregivers are unavailable sometimes rejecting and not responsive to infants needs Insecurely attached resistant Intensely distressed by separation yet during reunion they seem to be ambivalent toward mother Clingy angry and are not easily comforted Seek contact and push mom away Insecurely attached disorganized Look away from mother Approach her with flat or distressed emotion Caregivers can be abusive 15 of children Can an Infant Form Multiple Attachments 1 They are highly selective in their choices of attachment 2 Not all social relationships can be identified as attachments Ex Blanky transitional object 3 Not all attachment figures are equally important mother is most important then dad then grandfather etc Temperament Temperament an innate style of responding to environment Variables used in measuring temperament Activity level Regularity in eating sleep and elimination Response to new objects Adaptability Intensity of energy level General mood Categories of Temperament Easy 40 not upset by novelty regular in eating sleeping and elimination usually cheerful Slow to warm up 15 slow to accept novelty lower activity levels adjusts slowly to new experiences Difficult 10 irritable hard to soothe irregular in eating sleeping and elimination 35 are not classified they are a mixture of temperamental responses A child s temperament and the parents responses to the temperament interact to produce particular outcomes Goodness of fit creating child rearing environments that recognize each child s temperament and encourage adaptive functioning EX A poor fit for a difficult child would be an angry punitive parent Difficult and slow to warm up children benefit from warm accepting parents who place reasonable demands on the child Temperament Continued The relationship between spouses can affect the way a parent relates to the child marital relationship Child behavior parenting asthma diabetes eating disorder Jerome Kagan PhD ongoing longitudinal study launched in 1989 Does early behavior predict later behavior Is personality stable over time Are the traits of introversion and extroversion stable He took a sample of 400 4 month old infants and they were measured at approximately 3 year intervals into their adolescence Introduced a variety of novel stimuli and recorded subjects responses 4 months of age stimuli such as balloons popping tape recorded voices musical mobiles scent of rubbing alcohol on a Q tip 20 of babies had a strong disturbed reaction high reactive 40 of babies were undisturbed low reactive 40 of babies had a mixed reaction Child behaviormarital relationshipasthma diabetes eating disorderparenting 2 years of age stimuli such as a lady in a white lab coat wearing a gas mask a man dressed as a clown radio controlled robot 7 years of age stimuli such as being asked to play with children the child did not know 11 years of age stimuli such as being interviewed about his or her s life by an adult the child did not know Highly reactive babies generally developed into serious careful introverted adolescents Low reactive babies generally developed into relaxed confident extroverted adolescents who were open to new experiences Excitable amygdala more reactive kids increased HR BP finger temp and REM sleep The ideal parent for a high reactive child is one who Can read a child s cues and be sensitive to them Is warm and firm without being harsh or hostile Promotes curiosity with gentle encouragement Consistent in expectations Parenting and Kids Why we parent Altricial born in a helpless condition requiring prolonged parental care Precocial active and able to move freely from birth requiring little parental care Physical needs Socialization How do we parent When to feed the baby What to feed the baby Where to put the baby ETC Parenting is a biological physical social and emotional task that has evolved through culturally driven ideals and beliefs Sleep Arrangements 2 3 of the world sleep with their babies as a normative parenting practice US and England babies should sleep independently and through the night by 6 months Independence US vs interdependence rest of the world Ex Japan believes you are born a free spirit and you are

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PSU HDFS 129 - Exam 2 Notes

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