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Life Span Perspective 1. Development is a life long process- Every stage of development involves particular tasks- How does development in one stage affect the development in another2. Multidirectionality - Development can take many directions 3. Plasticity - The degree to which characteristics can or cannot change throughout the lifespan4. Development must be viewed in historical context- Social movements- Technology- War- All of these factors affect a person’s development (Ex. if someone grew upduring a world war their development was influenced in a certain way.)5. Contextualism- Development must be studied in various contexts- “Development is an ongoing interaction between a changing individual in a changing environment”6. Reciprocal Influence- The individual influences and is influenced by his or her environment 7. Multidimensionality - Biological, cognitive, social, and emotional factors interact to affect development 8. Multidisciplinary - The study of human development should involve collaboration across various fields of study Developmental Age Classifications - Infancy and Toddlerhood- birth to 2 - Early childhood- 2-6- Middle childhood- 6-11- Adolescence- 11-18- Early adulthood- 18-40- Emerging adulthood- 19-25 (this is us, we still rely on our parents, but weare on our own)- Middle adulthood- 40-65- Late adulthood- 65-olderNature Vs. Nuture- Nature- the influence of heredity on development or biologically based predispositionso Jerome Kegan- temperaments, nature side of the argumento Inhibited kids vs. uninhibited kidso Inhibited kids are more uncomfortable in new situations and not as outgoingo Whatever type of kid you are that is the type of adult you will be- Nuture- forces in the environment that influence development - What we are studying now is how nature and nurture interact with each other toaffect development- Just because you have a predisposition to something does not mean we know how it will manifest into your life- Traits which have substantial genetic predisposition:o Intelligenceo Verbal abilityo Vocational interesto Scholastic achievemento Memory o Extroversion/introversiono Neuroticism o Opennesso Conscientiousness o Agreeableness - 2007- Study of Baby Einstein Videos- Dr. Christakis and Zimmerman- Evidence to suggest that videos may impede language development for infants ages 8-16 months- 17% drop in vocabulary for babies who watched videos compared to babies whodid not watch videos, but, instead, engaged in face to face interactions w/ adults ????- Disorders which have a substantial genetic predisposition:o Depression o Autism o Alzheimer’s diseaseo Schizophreniao Alcoholism - When researchers report that traits are heritable, they typically mean that genes account for 30-60% of the variation you see in that trait - The environment modifies or enhances traits to which we are predisposed Stability and Change - Is personality stable over time?Scientific Investigation- Goals:o Description of average trendso Explanation of why we develop as we do? (Mothers)o Optimization- how can we help people to develop in a positive direction?- Science is not defined by what it studies but how it conducts investigations- Theory is a set of assumptions that attempt to describe, predict or explain a phenomenon - The Cycle of Science:1. Observations2. Theory3. Hypothesis4. Systematic Observation5. Support or modify the theory - Correlational research- the goal is to describe the strength and direction of the relationship between 2 variables- Ex. Is there a relationship between the amount of conflict in a marriage and the marriage ending in divorce? (No, there is not)- The result of correlational research is a correlation coefficient that ranges in value from -1.00 to +1.00- The closer to -1 or +1 the stronger the correlation- Direction of the line on the graph tells you the sign of the correlation (positive ornegative)- Positive- as one variable increases, the other variable increases- Negative- as one variable increases, the other variable decreases - In correlational research we can predict one variable from the other, but correlation does NOT equal causation - However, there may be a third variable that causes the correlation between the two variables.- Research Question: Is there a relationship between X and Y?- Hypothesis: states an expected relationship between 2 concepts- You always have to “operationalize” the 2 concepts, which means providing a clear definition of each concept and designating a particular measurement instrument to measure each conceptPsychoanalytic Theory of Freud- Development is directed by the interaction of nature (drives and instincts) and nurture (early experience primarily parents)- ID- present at birth, our basic instinct to seek pleasure and avoid pain, to expressthe self - SUPEREGO- in place by 3-6 years old, constraints placed upon child by parents and the demands of society - EGO- begins to form in infancy, the way in which we cope with our instinctual drives (ID) and the demands made by parents and society (SUPEREGO), balance between both - Internal conflict- anxiety that results from a struggle between biological demands and societal expectationsIceberg Theory1. Conscious mind- that which we are aware of2. Preconscious mind- stored information that can be brought to the mind at will3. Unconscious mind- that which is kept from out awarenesso The memory or experience was too threatening and becomes a repressed memory o Primal drives that must stay in check o Implicit memories- memories formed in infancy and early childhood- Freud said dreams are the royal road to the unconscious - When repressed implicit memories slip into your conscious mind they are often disguised Behavioral Theory (Skinner and Bandura)- Personality is shaped by early experience which involved learning - Learning for Skinner involves:o Positive reinforcement – bring rewarded for a desired behavioro Negative reinforcement- the removal of an aversive event when desired behavior appears (taking away something that someone does not like)- Learning for Bandura involves:o Modeling- learning how to behave by observing significant otherso How a parent behaves is much more important than what the parent saysto the child about how he or she should behaveErikson’s Psychosocial Theory of Development:- includes notions of the lifespan perspective- contextualism- ie. Relationships- lifelong development- plasticity- we can change at any time-

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PSU HDFS 129 - Life Span Perspective

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