UCF HIS 2000 - Film & Lecture: Life in the High and Late Middle Ages

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Film & Lecture: Life in the High and Late Middle AgesQuestions to Consider- What were the social, economic, and political consequences of the Black Death?- What were the fundamental shifts in attitudes at the top and bottom of the social ladder in the later Middle Ages?I. IntroductionA. Disintegration or crisis?- They thought it was disintegration, a punishment for sin by god- We would think of it today as a crisis that will passB. The Black Death- Eliminated a horrific amount of people- Originated in Mongolia- Supposed sources: “bad” air; smoke from a volcano; gas released from an earthquake; comets; alignment of planets; punishment for sins- wrath of god; the Jews and/or foreigners- Cures: blood leading; quarantines; burnings- houses, bodies, towns; blocking off entrances and exits; hot onions o infected areas; doctors wouldn’tlook at the dead people; wearing outrageous outfits- birdlike mask, long cloak,gloves, perfume cloths in the nose; going to church to be relieved of skins; no drinking of water- Loyalties and family ties were lost through parents leaving their children when they had a trace of the plague- Immoral behavior broke out- orgies, huge feasts where they would gorge themselves throw up and eat more, some even commit murder in hopes to avoid the plague- Flagellants- group of individuals who tried to atone themselves of their sins by traveling to cities and preforming rituals where they would whip themselves; believe the source of the plague is Jews- Anti-Semitism exists while the plague hits and they use this anti-Semitism byto blame the Jews in particular for the plague- Eventually led to the 100 years warII. Film: The Black DeathA. Consequences of the Plague - Ones faith was completely lost1. Social Consequences- Social mobility is created in Europe- No more competition within merchants - Feudalism is undone by the plague- Serfdom starts to end2. Economic Consequences- Short-term: labor became scarce therefore more valuable; abundance of unharvest food crops because of lack of laborers to harvest; agricultural trade is reduced - Long-term: food remained abundant; wage labor remained valued3. Political Consequences- Social mobility did not translate into political equalityIII. Social Change in the Later Middle AgesA. Revolts and rebellions1. "The Peasants' Revolt"- Begins in countryside- Started by John Wylclef- a renegade professor from Oxford University; tries to get the message of the church is wealthy, we are poor and basically the worlds corrupted across and that church land should be redistributed - Becomes a defeat for the peasants in the short-terma. March on London- b. Demands- Demands are eventually met, just not in the short-term2. General featuresa. Revolts- 100’s of revolts - 1,000’s of peasants partook in revolts - Not spontaneous- well planned b. Resistances- Presence of corruption: church, clergyman abusing power, etc.…- Presence of high taxationc. Government- Uses force against people- No negotiation d. Attacks on ruling elites- Becomes normal- Archbishop of Cannabary was killed in the peasants revolte. Fundamental cause- All comes back to land- the source of wealth and powerB. Aristocratic life in the later Middle Ages1. Increasing wealth- Wealthy people continued to get wealthier2. Insulated from the plague politically3. Increasing insecurities- Live in world of collapsing feudalism - Half serfdom4. Investment- Costs more to do what one was doing before- become entrepreneurs- Grow a more globalized system of trade- Nobles invested in Christopher Columbus’ expedition to go to India and Asia to open a new all water trade route5. Service- One owes service to their lord6. Concept of "Legal" nobility- Before plague if one could prove parents were noble then they would be noble too BUT, now it is not good enough just to be born into nobility7. The "noble" style of life- One is not really a noble unless he/she lives like a noble8. Kings and princes- Church isn’t supremely powerful, kings and princes are- promoted new monarchy, promoted knighthood, transitioned the post futile form of monarchy9. The future- Monarchy’s collapse and there will be a form of a republican government- Labor decreases with the inventions of


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UCF HIS 2000 - Film & Lecture: Life in the High and Late Middle Ages

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