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Lecture: Hellenistic World Questions to Consider•How did Alexander the Great’s conquests reshape the known world?–Spread Greekculture all over the world (consciously)•What were the major advancements of science, philosophy, and religion in the Hellenistic age? I. Downfall of the Greek PolisA.Spartan Dominance -challenged for centuries, and did not remain dominant, it circulated1.Corinthian War -Spartans won this war with the help of the Persians.2.Thebes and Sparta -became the dominant power, but for the most part Athens and Sparta were always fighting and dominant power was cycling between the 3 of them (Thebes, Athens, Sparta)3.Spartan defeat –eventually Sparta was defeated.B.Athenian naval confederacyC.Democrats v. oligarchsD.Social and economic crisesII. From Polis to MonarchyA.Macedonian conquestB.Alexander the Great -when he runs out of places to conquer, he tries going back to places they’ve been.-His soldiers were done fighting. Eventually he died of Malaria.C. The Hellenistic Kingdoms1.Ptolemaic Egypt2.Seleucid Asia -Seleucis is the ruler.3.Antigonid Macedon and Greece -Antigonis was an officer who rules Macedon & Greece.III. Hellenistic SocietyA.Building a Shared Society1. Hellenism -Parthenon, Greek styles of dress, prosperous with long-distance trade-Greek was the trade language.2. Hellenistic kings -Alexander (‘The Great”)B.The Growth of Trade and Commerce1. Overland routes-The Silk Road2. Commodities -frankincense & myrrh, gold, grain, horses, lumber, oil, pearls, silk, slaves, wineIV. Religion, Philosophy, and Science in the Hellenistic AgeA.Religion –Alexander and his generals exposed people to new religions.1.Mystery religions -are all faith-based religions-Isis is the most important goddess; if you have faith in Isis, and lead a good life, when you die she will judge you and you would be resurrected from the dead.-Sin: sins were wrong but they could be atoned for through prayer and offerings.-An idea that only those who believed, would be saved.-Hebrews translated the bible in Greek.-Greek ideas are still the epicenter.2.Egyptian mythologyA.Philosophy and Modes of Living1.Epicureanism -avoidance of pain, living life comfortably.2.Stoicism -“keep calm, carry on” way of life3.Skepticism -the world is perceived through your sensesB.Science and Medicine1.Euclid -geometry, he developed the first geometry book.2.Archimedes -some saw him as evil because a lot of what he worked on was weapons of war. -Engineer.3.Hippocrates -doctor, creates a science and philosophy of medicine. -“Do no harm”… realized that most of the things being done to people who were sick, was making them sicker or even killing them. -Rejects the supernatural as the cause of illness. Introduced an idea that the human body has a balance to it.4.Herophilus -inventor of the modern concept of autopsy-Makes very basic discoveries such as information about muscles and body


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UCF HIS 2000 - Hellenistic World

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