UCF CHM 2045C - Chapter 1—Basic Concepts of Chemistry

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1 Chapter 1—Basic Concepts of Chemistry MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. A theory is a a. concise statement of a behavior that is always the same under the same conditions. b. tentative explanation or prediction based upon experimental observations. c. mathematical formula that models a pattern of behavior. d. well-tested, unifying principle that explains a body of facts. e. set of quantitative numerical data. ANS: D 2. Which of the following statements concerning the kinetic-molecular theory of matter is/are CORRECT? 1. Particles in a liquid vibrate back and forth about an average position. 2. Particles in a solid are packed closely together, but are not confined to specific positions. 3. Particles in a gas fly about randomly, colliding with themselves and the walls of their container. a. 1 only b. 2 only c. 3 only d. 1 and 2 e. 1, 2, and 3 ANS: C 4 Which of the following are likely to form a homogeneous mixture? 1. milk and ice cream blended together with chocolate syrup 2. an egg combined with milk and mixed with a whisk 3. 1 gram table salt combined with 250 mL of water a. 1 only b. 2 only c. 3 only d. 1 and 2 e. 1, 2, and 3 ANS: C 5. Which one of the following is most likely to be a homogeneous mixture? a. blood b. soil c. gasoline d. plain yogurt e. mortar (a mixture of calcium carbonate and sand) ANS: C 6. The most recently named element, number 112, was recently named after which famous scientist? a. Sir Walter Rayleigh2 b. Nicholaus Copernicus c. Richard Oppenheimer d. Isaac Asimov e. Sir Isaac Newton ANS: B 7. What is the correct symbol for potassium? a. P b. Pm c. K d. Pt e. Po ANS: C 8. What is the name of the element with the symbol B? a. barium b. beryllium c. bismuth d. boron e. bromine ANS: D 9. An electrically charged atom or group of atoms is a(n) ________. a. element b. ion c. molecule d. heterogeneous mixture e. solution ANS: B 10. A pure substance composed of two or more different elements is a(n) ________. a. ion b. heterogeneous mixture c. chemical compound d. solid e. solution ANS: C 11. Which term best describes methane, CH4? a. homogeneous mixture b. ion c. element d. chemical compound e. atom ANS: D 12. Which one of the following statements is not a comparison of physical properties? a. Potassium reacts with water more quickly than calcium reacts with water. b. The electrical conductivity of aluminum is greater than copper. c. The density of copper is less than the density of lead. d. The solubility of NaCl in hot water is greater than the solubility in cold water.3 e. The boiling point of water is greater than the boiling point of ethanol. ANS: A 13. Which one of the following statements is not a comparison of physical properties? a. Mercury and gallium are both liquids at 50 °C. b. Oxygen is more soluble in water than helium. c. Silver and gold are malleable metals. d. Oxygen and nitrogen are both liquids at -200 °C. e. Calcium dissolves more quickly than iron in acids. ANS: E 14. An intensive property of a substance is a. independent of the amount present. b. dependent on its volume, but not its mass. c. not affected by its temperature. d. dependent only on its temperature. e. dependent only on its mass and volume. ANS: A 14. Which of the following lists contains only forms of kinetic energy? a. electrostatic, gravitational, and mechanical energy b. gravitational, mechanical, and electrical energy c. thermal, acoustic, and mechanical energy d. chemical, thermal, and acoustic energy e. gravitational, chemical, and electrostatic energy ANS: C SHORT ANSWER 15. Substances like hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2) that are composed of only one type of atom are classified as ________. ANS: elements 16. Properties, such as color and density, which can be observed or measured without changing the composition of a substance are called ________ properties. ANS: physical 17. A mass of 10 g of table salt dissolves in water to form a(n) ________ mixture (i.e., a mixture that is uniform throughout). ANS: homogeneous 18. A(n) ________ is the smallest particle of an element that retains the characteristic chemical properties of that element.4 ANS: atom 19. The ________ of a substance is defined as its mass per unit volume. ANS: density 20. Density is an example of a(n) ________ property, which is one that does not depend on the amount of a substance. ANS: intensive 21. ________ energy is the energy associated with the separation of two electrical charges. ANS: Electrostatic 22. Potential energy possessed by water at the top of a waterfall is known as ________ energy. ANS: gravitational 23. The law of ________ states that the total energy of the universe is constant. ANS: conservation of


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UCF CHM 2045C - Chapter 1—Basic Concepts of Chemistry

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