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1! Discuss four ways to “look at” personality (BLIS—behavior, life, informants, self) ! Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each type of data ! Discuss why it is important to collect as many types of data as possible 2! If you wanted to know all about the personality of the person sitting next to you, what would you do? 3 Look at what they’re wearingAsk them questions - self data/likes and dislikesMannerisms/behavioral tactics Facial expressionsTalk to people who know themLook up information about them! All parts of the psychological triad: ! “There are no perfect indicators of personality; there are only clues, and clues are always ambiguous” (p. 21) – Psychologist’s job ! “Something beats nothing” (p. 23) 4 (Thoughts, feelings, behaviors)! Definition: ◦ Usually questionnaires or surveys ! Most frequent data source ! High face validity 5 A person’s evaluation of his or her own personality(The degree to which an assessment instrument appears to measure what it is intended to measure)! Based on a large amount of information ! Access to thoughts, feelings, and intentions ! Has ‘definitional truth’ 6 You are always with yourselfPeople are usually their own best expertEx: self-esteemPerson can hide thoughts from others, only you know particular things(What you say goes)! Causal force ! Simple and easy data 7 : self-perceptions can create their own realityEfficacy expectationSelf-verification: make sure others believe the same thing about yourself that you believe about yourselfSimple to collect, easy to pass it out, inexpensive! Maybe people won’t tell you ! Maybe people can’t tell you ! Too simple and too easy 8 Reasons…Memory is limited and not perfectFish-and-water effect (they don’t know they are wet)Don’t notice differences, not conscious Active distortion of memoryLack of self-insight70% of articles solely based on S data! Definition: judgments by knowledgeable informants about general attributes of the individual’s personality ! Examples: ! Based on observing people 9 Acquaintances, coworkers, clinical psychologists, etc.in whatever context they know them from (best friend vs coworker)Used frequently in daily lifeTe! Based on a large amount of information ! Based on observation of behavior in the real world 10 Can see many behaviors in different contextsJudgments from multiple informant are possible Not from contrived tests or constructed situationsMore likely to be relevant to important outcomes! Based on common sense about what behaviors mean ! Definitional truth ! Causal force 11 Takes context into accountEx: charming (in order to be charming, someone else must think that way as well): people can become what others expect them to beReputation affects opportunities and expectanciesExpectancy effects! Limited behavioral information ! Lack of access to private experience ! Error: ! Bias: 14 more likely to remember behaviors that are extreme, unusual,or emotionally arousingdue to personal issues or prejudicesThink about sources of Influence on DataWhat are some aspects of personality that people are likely and unlikely to accurately and honestly report about themselves?What influences your best friend’s, coworkers’, and mother’s impressions of you?! Definition: ! Obtained from archival records or self-report ! The results or “residue” of personality 13 verifiable real-life facts that may hold psychologicalsignificanceEx: arrests, hospital records, income, zip codeAdvantages and disadvantages of archival records(people change over time)! Advantages ! Disadvantage 14 Objective and verifiableIntrinsic importance: we care about life outcomesPsychological relevance: L data usually affected by personalityMultideterminationEx: many things can cause arrest records! “The most visible indication of an individual’s personality is what she does” (p. 44). ! Definition: ! Two types: 15 information recorded from direct observationnatural vs contrived! Based on how people act in real life ! Examples: ! Advantage: realistic ! Disadvantages: 16 Diary and experience - sampling methodsReports by acquaintancesNaturalistic observationDifficult and expensiveDesired contexts may seldom occur! Three types of Lab data ! 1) Experiments 17 Make a situation happen and record behaviorExamine reactions to subtle aspects of situationsRepresent real-life context that are difficult to observe directly! 2) (Certain) personality tests ! 3) Physiological measures: biological “behavior” 18 To see how a person respondsEx: MMPI, Rorschach Inkblot testChapter 5! Advantages ! Disadvantage 19 Range of contexts in the labAppearance of objectivityBut subjective judgments must still be madeUncertain interpretation! Data do not always fit into only one category ! Purpose of 4 types 20 Illustrate a wide range of possible types of data Show how each type has advantages and disadvantages! “There are only clues, and clues are always ambiguous” (p. 55). ! It is important to collect more than one type. ! Consistent findings increase confidence. 211. How much money a person spends on groceries in a month based on receipts 2. What type of food a student purchases from dining areas and vending machines on campus 3. Reports from parents about what kind of food people ate as children 4. Answers to a “Healthy Foods, Healthy People" survey about one’s self 22 © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. B dataI dataS

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OSU PSYCH 3530 - Chapter 2

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