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Wade Boggs-really superstitious baseball playerMagical ThinkingMagical beliefs give the illusion of control over mysterious and threatening forcesCan provide comfort when a phenomenon is not understoodCan blind the thinker to reality when the phenomenon comes to be clearly understoodSuperstitionSuperstitions are beliefs or practices groundless in themselves and inconsistent with the degree of enlightenment reached by the community to which one belongs.Superstitious behaviorPost hoc ergo propter hocContiguity and coincidencePost hoc ergo propter hocEvents that occur in close temporal proximityContiguityWhen two things come together in space they are contiguousWhen two events come together in time they are coincidentShaping behaviorConditionedClassicalPavlov-dogs salivation experimentReflexive behaviorsBlinking, yawning, salivating, etc.Pair a reflexive behavior with stimulusThe unconditioned stimulus reliably produces a reflexive behaviorA puff of air will cause eye to blinkThe neautral stimulus is unrelated to the behaviorA tone will not cause the eye to blinkThe eye blink to the tone without the air is the conditioned responseOperantB.F. Skinner, father of operantBehavior is reinforced will persistPositive reinforcementSomething good happens after a behavior is performedNegative reinforcementTake away a bad stimulus after behavior is performedNoxous stimulusSuperstitious behaviorThorndikes Puzzle BoxA hungry cat is placed in a box with food clearly visible outside the boxEscape from the box is accomplished by pushing a leverAfter several times they get out almost immediatelyEvery cat escapes in the same wayWhatever was initially successful will persistAnimals will repeat complex behavior after it is rewardedChildren and adults are just as likely to do this as animalsBobo, OnoClassical is passive, effective mostly for reflexive behaviorsOperant conditioning is active, not limited in its rangePlaying it safeAre people conditioned like pigeons orIs there a reasoning error? Do people believe their superstitious behaviors actually cause the events.. OR?Are people hedging their bets? If its easy to do it why not?VyseThree kinds of superstitionsSimple superstitionsSensory superstitionsAscribes particular importance to features of our surroundingsEx. Taking a test with your lucky pencilMorse and skinner- pigeons given access to food if they pecked for the key. Mostly orange but sometimes switched to blue. When the key changes colors the behavior changed. Either ignore the key entirely or peck at the key very rapidly.Concurrent superstitionsResults when rewards for one action encourage another unrelated action.ex. The effect of the broken remote controlworks when I shake it, always shake it to change channelCatania and CuttsA variable schedule of reinforcement delivers a reward at differing times after a behaviorExperimentUsing two push-buttons, accumulate points on counterOnly the right button produced points of a variable schedule, and the left button did nothingAll students used sequencesWhy are we superstitiousWe often are unaware of our conditioned behaviors (simple superstitions)When the reward is great and the cost of the behavior is minor, the tendency towards superstition is increasedThe regression effectSports illustrated jinx? If you pose for the covers you end up not doing wellRegression towards the meanTall people tend to have tall children, short people tend to have short childrenVery very tall people tend to have children that are shorter than they areImplication-for extreme measurements, we should see subsequent measurements that are not so extremeAlternative medicinesTake medicine, start to feel better. Two events are contiguousTherefore we think that the medication is making us better, but it is really just the natural course of the diseaseHave to be testing under double blind, anecdotal evidence does not matterSummarySuperstitions are learnedConditioning occurs when events are contiguousContiguity influences perception of “cause”Conditioned behaviors are common and normal10/24/2013Wade Boggs-really superstitious baseball playerMagical Thinking- Magical beliefs give the illusion of control over mysterious and threatening forceso Can provide comfort when a phenomenon is not understoodo Can blind the thinker to reality when the phenomenon comes to be clearly understoodSuperstition- Superstitions are beliefs or practices groundless in themselves and inconsistent with the degree of enlightenment reached by the community to which one belongs. Superstitious behavior- Post hoc ergo propter hoc- Contiguity and coincidencePost hoc ergo propter hoc- Events that occur in close temporal proximityContiguity- When two things come together in space they are contiguous- When two events come together in time they are coincident Shaping behavior- ConditionedClassical- Pavlov-dogs salivation experiment- Reflexive behaviorso Blinking, yawning, salivating, etc.- Pair a reflexive behavior with stimulus - The unconditioned stimulus reliably produces a reflexive behavioro A puff of air will cause eye to blink- The neautral stimulus is unrelated to the behavioro A tone will not cause the eye to blink- The eye blink to the tone without the air is the conditioned responseOperant- B.F. Skinner, father of operant- Behavior is reinforced will persist- Positive reinforcemento Something good happens after a behavior is performed- Negative reinforcemento Take away a bad stimulus after behavior is performedo Noxous stimulus Superstitious behavior - Thorndikes Puzzle Boxo A hungry cat is placed in a box with food clearly visible outside the boxo Escape from the box is accomplished by pushing a levero After several times they get out almost immediatelyo Every cat escapes in the same wayo Whatever was initially successful will persist- Animals will repeat complex behavior after it is rewarded- Children and adults are just as likely to do this as animalso Bobo, OnoClassical is passive, effective mostly for reflexive behaviorsOperant conditioning is active, not limited in its rangePlaying it safe- Are people conditioned like pigeons or o Is there a reasoning error? Do people believe their superstitious behaviors actually cause the events.. OR?o Are people hedging their bets? If its easy to do it why not?Vyse- Three kinds of superstitionso Simple superstitionso Sensory superstitions Ascribes particular importance to features of our surroundings Ex. Taking a test with your lucky pencil Morse and


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