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UIUC ANSC 207 - Notes for Animal Bio Quiz 2

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Notes for Animal Bio Quiz 21. In the HSVMA guide, there are 182 common purebred dog breeds with numbers next to each breed that corresponds to congenital and heritable diseases found in section two. There are 334 different disorders listed. 2. OFA-CHIC is the Orthopedic Foundation for animals (OFA) Canine Health Information Center (CHIC). Its objectives are to research and maintain information on the health issues prevalent in specific breeds. They have a certification process for breeders. A dog gets this certification if it has been screened for every disease recommended by the parent club for that breed and have the results public. GOALS:- To work with parent clubs in the identification of health issues for which a central information system should be established.- To establish and maintain a central health information system in a manner that will support research into canine disease and provide health information to owners and breeders.- To establish scientifically valid diagnostic criteria for the acceptance of information into the database.- To base the availability of information on individually identified dogs at the consent of the owner.How CHIC applies to different professions and people: For breeders, CHIC provides a reliable source of information regarding dogs they may use in their breeding programs. Breeders can analyze the pedigrees of a proposed breeding for health strengths and weaknesses as well as the traditional analysis of conformation, type, and performance strengths and weaknesses.For buyers, the CHIC program provides accurate information about the results of a breeder’s health testing. For diseases that are limited to phenotypic evaluations, thereare no guarantees. However, the probability that an animal will develop an inherited disease is reduced when its ancestry has tested normal. Further, as more DNA tests become available and the results are entered, the OFA database will be able to establish whether progeny will be clear, carriers, or affected.For parent clubs considering the establishment of health databases on their own, theCHIC Program provides the answer with no upfront investment required by the club. The CHIC infrastructure is supplied and maintained by the OFA. The data is maintained in a secure environment by trained staff. The services are not subject to the time, technology, and resource constraints that parent clubs might face on their own. This frees parent clubs to focus on their core strengths of identifying health concerns, educating their membership, and encouraging participation in the CHIC Program through the OFA.For researchers, the OFA database, and specifically those dogs that have achieved CHIC Certification, provide confidential and accurate aggregate information on multiple generations of dogs. This information will also be useful for epidemiological studies enhancing our knowledge of health issues affecting all breeds of dogs.For everyone interested in canine health issues, the OFA database, and specifically those dogs that have achieved CHIC Certification, are tools to monitor disease prevalence and measure progress.KEY TERMS: BOAS: Brachycephalic Obstructive Airway SyndromeBrachycephalic: Broad skull base, short muzzle, strong jaw, FIGHTING or toy, juvenile characteristics. Cephalic index: A number expressing the ratio of the max breadth of a skull to its max length Dolicocephalic: Narrow skull base, elongated muzzle, usually long neck. SPEED. Ex: greyhound or saluki Functional bite: fewer dental issues, stronger and better teeth, teeth are aligned. Wear is even Malocclusion: Teeth that don’t fit together well, overbite, underbiteMesaticephalic: Medium skull width and medium muzzle length, stronger jaw, CARRY. Retrievers, also in wolves. Most likely to have a functional bite, fewer dental issues, teeth are aligned well. Good teeth basically. Wild dogsNeoteny: The retention of juvenile features in the adult animal.1. Describe the head types. Which categories of dogs/functions are represented in each? -See term chart2. Which head types are more likely to have malocclusion? Why?- Longer/Shorter head types are more likely to have malocclusion because there is more room for the teeth to becomeout of place. 3. Other than overall type, what are other examples of ways heads differ among dog breeds?-Shape of brain case, joint angles, changes over time are different depending on breeds. 4. Compared to the development of the early breed types, how does the rate of extreme changes compare? -These rates are much faster, and lead to health problems, not gradual 5. What physical components contribute to BOAS? -Nostrils are smashed together nose pushed back into face, obstructs airflow6. What are some symptoms of a dog with BOAS?- Teeth have no space to align well, folded tissue. Airways blocked. Open mouth breathing. Grunting, snorting, hard time sleeping as well. DOCUMENTARY QUESTIONS:1. For each breed mentioned, document the extreme trait(s) involved, and the specific associated health problems. -Cavalier Spaniel, shrinking back, neurological condition where the skull is too small for the brain. Extreme twitching/spazzing. Brain damage, scratching. Burning pain headache, light touch can induce discomfort. Agony. -Pug, legs and knee problems, joint problems, stomach protruding, squashed nose, breathing problems, eye problems, curved spine. Tail = spine problems. Double curl. 2. For each surgery shown, document the breed and what was being corrected. Spaniel: Back of skull removed, brain can expand, leaving more room. Pug: Remove tissue blocking airways, and in throat. Widens nostrils3. Which breed was mentioned several times as having very similar problems as shown in the pug? bulldog4. What did the experts list as the top two major reasons that modern purebred dogs have health problems?-Inbred-Competitive dog showingCATS: 1. For cats that are not a specific breed, what are the categories we commonly use to describe them?-Non-pedigrees, moggies, domestic shorthair/longhair, street cats.2. Generally speaking, how does the number of cat breeds compareto the number of dog breeds? Why is this the case? -Much fewer cat breeds than dog breeds. Cats weren’t needed for certain activities.3.For each of the breeds described with extreme traits, how does thetrait specifically affect the cat’s welfare? -Manx: No or short tail. Also affects spine. Pee issues and grooming issues. Brain issues. If 2 mate, the defects can be

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