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MSU BS 162 - BS 162 Common Homework for Genetics

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Petunias are a common flower around the world because of their bright colors and long blooming cycles, but Petunias are native to South America. Petunias are diploid with 14 chromosomes. For a particular species of petunias, the different color plants can all be interbred in greenhouses, however, these different color plants typically do not breed in their natural environment because different organisms are responsible for pollinating each color. Flowers can attract different pollinators based on the color of the flower in the daytime and the ability to absorb UV light which is visible at night. Bees and birds are attracted by bright colors like reds and purples while moths are attracted by strong UV absorbance which is usually found in white flowers. Remember that pollination is essential to flowers for reproduction. Without their pollinators helping, the flowers would not be able to reproduce naturally.**A majority of this case study is taken from--Hester Sheehan et al. 2016. MYB-FL controls gain and loss of floral UV absorbance, a key trait affecting pollinator preference and reproductive isolation. Nature Genetics 48, 159-166.Name:Directions: You should work on this genetics homework over the next few weeks as you go through the genetics section of your BS 162. This assignment is meant for you to complete and use as a reference in this class and future genetics classes to help you understand the fundamentalconcepts in genetics. Feel free to make any notes to yourself in the margins so when you look back at this document, you will remember your thinking at the time. Once you have completed this document, you should compare it to the rubric and then you should scan it and keep it as a digital copy in your D2L Portfolio. The word bank at the end of the document is for your reference. You will receive further instruction on how to use your D2L Portfolio from your instruction team.BS 162 Common Homework for Genetics SectionPetunias are a common flower around the world because of their bright colors and long bloomingcycles, but Petunias are native to South America. Petunias are diploid with 14 chromosomes. For a particular species of petunias, the different color plants can all be interbred in greenhouses, however, these different color plants typically do not breed in their natural environment because different organisms are responsible for pollinating each color. Flowers can attract different pollinators based on the color of the flower in the daytime and the ability to absorb UV light which is visible at night. Bees and birds are attracted by bright colors like reds and purples while moths are attracted by strong UV absorbance which is usually found in white flowers. Remember that pollination is essential to flowers for reproduction. Without their pollinators helping, the flowers would not be able to reproduce naturally.**A majority of this case study is taken from--Hester Sheehan et al. 2016. MYB-FL controls gain and loss of floral UV absorbance, a key trait affecting pollinator preference and reproductive isolation. Nature Genetics 48, 159-166.Table 1. Flower color and Primary Pollinator for Three Colors of PetuniasFlower Color in visible light Ability to absorb UV light Primary PollinatorPurple Minimal UV light absorption BeesWhite High UV light absorption MothsRed Minimal UV light absorptions HummingbirdsResearchers are interested in whether the differences in flower color and the ability to absorb UVlight are controlled primarily by genetic factors OR in response to environmental factors. One group of researchers, led by Foster, proposed that the plant can change the color of its flowers and its ability to absorb UV light based on the density and species of pollinators in the area. Another group of researchers, led by Sheehan, believes that there is a single gene that is primarily responsible for flower color and UV absorption and the plants cannot change their flower colors during their lifetime regardless of density and species of pollinators in the environment.Q1a. In 2-3 sentences briefly explain how you would design an experiment that would test Foster’s proposal, that plants can change their flower color based on pollinator density and species composition to increase pollination. Q1b. What is the null hypothesis for the experiment to test Foster’s idea?Q1c. What is an alternative hypothesis for the experiment to test Foster’s idea?Q1d. Based on your experiment in 1a, draw a figure that would show data that does NOT support Foster’sideas that plant color would change based on pollinator density and composition. Make sure you label theaxes and the scale marks/tick marks.Q1e. Below your figure, write a figure legend/caption that includes complete sentences explaining what the figure is representing.For the upcoming spring, Patriotic Plant Company (PPC) wants to create a plant that produces flowers that are red, white and blue and also are extra-large. The researchers at PPC have found a species of Petunias with a single gene for petal color. The petal color gene is located on chromosome 6. The allele, R, produces red flowers in the homozygous form and the allele, W, produces white flowers in the homozygous form. In addition, the gene for petal color shows co-dominance in the heterozygous form.The researchers have also located a gene in tropical frogs, called FRG, that produces a blue protein called Ranasmurfin (Cooper and Kennedy Biophys. Chem. 2010) in either the heterozygous and homozygous dominant form. The researchers have successfully inserted the FRG gene on chromosome 7 of this species of petunias.Finally, on chromosome 8 is a gene that controls size of the flowers in the plants. The B1 allele produces extra-large flowers and is dominant to both the B2 (medium flowers) and B3 (small flowers) alleles. B2 is dominant to B3.Fill in the table below to help you keep track of the genes Chromosome Number Location Alleles Genotypes Phenotype6 R or W RR, RW, WW Red, Red and White, White78In the main office at PPC, there is a petunia plant that has all medium flowers (let’s assume it is homozygous for the flower size gene). The flowers have both red and white blotches on them. Itdoes not have any of the blue color because it has the genotype “ff” for the FRG gene. It is receiving plenty of nutrients and sunlight in the office and is growing quickly. Imagine you are drawing a


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