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UA CJ 100 - Criminal Justice Study Guide

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Criminal Justice – October 2ndDepartment of Justice (DOJ)- responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the united states- judiciary act of 1789Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)- Domestic intelligence and security service of the United states which simultaneously serves as the nation’s prime federal law enforcement agency- The Bureau of investigation (BOI) was created on July 26, 1908- HRTT- Hostage rescue team US Marshall- Nation’s oldest federal law enforcement agency (1789)- Very diverse mission statement- The oldest law enforcement agency- Protect the federal judge- serves federal (fugitive) arrest warrants- transports federal prisoners- operate witness security program- criminal asset forfeiture Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)- Tasked with combating drug smuggling and usewithin the United States- Lead agency for domestic enforcement of the Controlled Substances Act (Statute establishingfederal U.S. drug policy)Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF)- Responsibilities include the investigation and prevention of the federal offenses involving theunlawful use, manufacture, and possession of firearms and explosives; acts of arson and bombings; and illegal trafficking of alcohol and tobacco products. Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP)- Responsible for the administration of the federal prison system- ADX Florence Department of Homeland Security (DHS)- Created in response to 9/11- Antiterrorism, border security, immigration andcustoms, cybersecurity, and disaster prevention and management. Transportation Security Administration (TSA)- Authority over the security of traveling public in the United States- TSA screeners- Federal air marshals (FAMS)United States Secret Service- 50/50 mission= preventing counterfeiting of the US currency and protecting public officials US Customs and Border Protection- Largest federal law enforcement agency of the United Sates Department of Homeland Security- CBP Officer-stationed at border checkpoints-looking for contraband -thermal technology- BP Agent-border patrol agent-press & media shows-olive greens suitsCriminal Justice- October 4thTennessee v. Garner 1985- Change how deadly force is used against fleeing felons - Center mass shooting- Before 1985 they were always trained that if you had a felony you could shot the individual with an intent to kill them. You did not need a probable cause- Edwin Degardin- Responding officers must have probable cause in order to use deadly force (the felony needs to be armed and dangerous)- Does not apply in correctional places - 4th amendment case (establishment of probable cause and seizures) Criminal Justice- October 9Classical Criminology- “classical criminology” was a product of the Age of Enlightenment - First attempt to explain crime through scientificterms- Cesare Beccaria was the first and most prominent “classical criminologist” with his work, An Essay on Crimes and Punishments (1764)- Individuals are rational beings (rational choices)- Maximize pleasure and minimize pain (cost/benefit)- Crime is committed through FREE WILL! (not byevil spirits - Unless individuals are deterred, they will commit crimes (specific vs. general deterrence)- Specific: punishment intended to discourage criminal behavior - General: impact of the threat of legal punishment on the public at large (beyondscared straight, locked up, prison picking up trash, etc) - Classical theory focuses on natural forces that can be observed (absence of effective punishments = more crime)Three elements- Swiftness of punishment -The trial will be over in a reasonable amountof time.- Certainty of punishment-if you committed a crime you knew you would serve the time- Severity of punishment -The punishment has to fit the crime“Blind Justice”- Law applies equally to EVERYONEID- All people are inherited criminal - Social & anti-social thoughtsSuper Ego- Ability to make a right and wrong decision - Learning from an early age- Over developed sense (not taking job offers, etc)- MoralEgo- Comes about later in adult life- Good quality with rational decision makingRoper Simmons (2005)- If you are under the age of 18 and you commit a crime it cannot be the death penalty as your max punishment Robert Hare- Wrote a book “without conscious” - Lack empathy & remorse (psychopath)- Drain you, take your money, don’t care about you- “social predators” - The PCLR (psychopath path test)-20 questions, 40 points the perfect one- God father of phych of a phycho- Scoring range 30-40MMPI- Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory- Used not only in prisons but career centers - The main personality inventory used in the criminal justice system The Dark Triad- Cluster of 3 different traits- Do not want to come in counter with these peopleNarcissistic personality disorder-do not care about others only themselvesPsychopathyMachiavellianismCriminal Justice- October 11John Douglas- Mindhunter- Found behavioral science unitPatricia Kirpy- First female special agent in FBI behavioral science unitTed Bundy- Changed people’s preconceptions on serial killers- One of the most known serial killers in historyEd Gebb- Removed the faces of his victims and wore them around his house for fun- Texas chainsaw based off of him-psychopath have really low heart ratesGary Ridgeway- Also known as the “green river killer”- Greatest number of confirmed victims- Silence of the lambsCriminal Justice – October 16Crime Control vs Due Process- Two competing models of criminal justice administration: Crime control vs Due processControl Crime Model- “assembly line justice”- Every effort is made to repress crime- Speed and efficiency are the main goals- Avoids the courtroom, promotes plea bargaining *pleading guilty with a reasonable expectation of a reduction in a charge (for a lighter sentence) Due Process Model- “obstacle course justice”- Stresses using the adversarial (courtroom) process- Strained resources make this model problematic Plea Bargaining- Plea agreement: the defendant will plead guiltyto the original charge, or to another charge, in return for a reduced sentence- Benefits of plea bargaining: criminal defendants, judges, prosecutors.- The judges and prosecutors save time and don’t have to go through as much paperwork and get their stats upCriticisms of plea bargaining- Due process concerns, defendants give up their constitutional rights (right to trial by jury)- Sentencing policies and


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