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UA CJ 100 - Test 4- Criminal justice

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Test 4-Criminal JusticeCorrections- Corrections refers to ALL programs, services, facilities, and organizations responsible for the management of the accused and convicted- Prisons, jails, probation, parole, halfway houses, education and work release programs, community service, etc. - Only account for 30% (physical incarceration) , 70% community corrections (probation & parole)History of Corrections in the US- Penitentiary (Prison)- an institution intended to punish criminals by isolating them from society, so they can reflect on their crimes and reformThe Pennsylvania System- Criminals could best be reformed if they were placed in penitentiaries- Separate confinement- inmates held in isolation from other inmates. All activities, including craft work, took place in cells (and in insolation)- Solitary confinement would prevent further corruption inside prison.- Offenders would reflect on their past transgressions and repent.The New York System- Rival to Pennsylvania’s concept of separate confinement- Congregate system- prisoners were held in isolation at night but worked with other prisoners in shops during the day.- Prisoners worked under a rule of silence and were forbidden from even looking at each other. - Industrial efficiency should be the purpose of prison- Contract labor system- labor sold on a contractual basis to private employers. Private employers provided the equipment and inmates made products to sell.- Strict discipline, obedience was key. - Laid foundation for private prisons- Free inmate laborCincinnati, 1870- Advocated a new design for the penitentiary system- Reform should be rewarded by release- Indeterminate sentencing guidelines, instead offixed sentences (minimum and maximum)- Created paroleCorrections in the US- Each level of government has some responsibility for corrections (local, state, and federal)- State and local governments pay about 90% of the cost of all correctional activities in the nationModel of Incarceration- Custodial model- emphasis security, discipline, and order (assumes purpose of incapacitation, deterrence, or retribution)- Rehabilitation model- emphasizes treatment programs (drug courts)- Reintegration model- emphasizes ties to family and community (community corrections)- *the majority of prisons conform to the custodial model.Federal Bureau of Prisons- Created by congress in 1930- Facilities and inmates are classified by security range: level 1 (least secure, camp-type settings)- Level 5 (the most secure “super max” penitentiary at Florence, Colorado- ADX Florence- “Alcatraz of the Rockies”State correctional systems- Forty states have created prisons that exceed maximum security- About 20000 inmates are currently held in these “super max” prisons- California pelican bay Private prisons- Response to prison and jail overcrowding and rising costs- Argue that private enterprise can build and runprisons as effectively as government, but at a lower cost to the taxpayers- Private facilities hold approximately 6% of all state prisoners and 15% of all federal prisonersJail- Jails are used for detention and short-term incarceration (less than one year)- Local facilities used to detain people awaiting trial- Also serve as a holding facility for “social misfits” (junkies, disturbers of public order, prostitutes, etc)The contemporary jail- Approximately 3400 jails in the US- Because of constant inmate turnover, correctional services are usually lacking in jails- The mixture of offenders of differing ages and criminal histories is also a major problemCommunity Corrections- Community corrections seeks to build stability and success for offenders through the community.- Finding employment opportunities is an important component of community corrections- Based on the goal of finding the “least restrictive alternative” - Finding the least restrictive alternative Probation- Conditional release into the community (avoidsincarceration)- Submitting to drug tests, obeying curfews, and staying away from certain people or parts of town.- About 4.2 million offenders currently on probation.Probation services- Probation officers can be thought of as police officers and social workers- Supervise clients (offenders) to keep them out of trouble and enforce the conditions of the sentence.- Help clients obtain housing, employment, and treatment services. Probation officers and caseloads- In the 1930s, the national probation associationrecommended a 50-unit caseload- In 1967 the president’s commission law enforcement reduced it to 35-unit caseload- Today the national average for adult supervision is about 150, with some urban areas exceeding 300.How probation ends- Probation ends in one of two ways:- Offenders successfully completes the period of probation- The probationary status to revoked because of a technical violation (fails to meet conditions and abide by rules o9f probation)- Once the probationary term is completed, the sentence ends.Parole- Provisional release from prison- Main goals: managing prison populations and incentivizing rehabilitation - You’ve served time in the prisonTypes of intermediate sanctions- Fines-sum of money to be paid to the state by a convicted person as punishment for an offense- Restitution- repayment in the form of money orservice by an offender to a victim who has suffered some loss from the offense- Forfeiture- government seizures of property and other assets derived from or used in criminal activity. - Criminal forfeiture- unreasonable doubt, charges, gained through illegal activity- Civil forfeiture- large can move without criminalcharges, honor of evidence - Home confinement- a sentence requiring the offender to remain inside their home during specified periods (“house arrest”)- Community service- requires the offender to perform a certain amount of unpaid labor in thecommunity (social service agencies, cleaning parks and roadsides, etc)- Day reporting centers- community correctional center where an offender reports each day to comply with elements of a sentence. Oj Simpson Case- Three separate crime scenes (his car, victim condo, his house)- Ronald Golden- young guy seeing Nicole on theside, seen murdered outside the door of the victim’s house- Car full of blood- His house had a lot of evidence linking them back to Nicole’s killing- The motive that the prosecution formulated is that he was the jealous ex-husband. Allegation that he had been stalking Nicole and following her around. One


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