USC CTCS 190 - WEEK NINE Production Process (4 pages)

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WEEK NINE Production Process



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WEEK NINE Production Process

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Pages:
4
School:
University of Southern California
Course:
Ctcs 190 - Introduction to Cinema
Introduction to Cinema Documents
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WEEK NINE The Production Process I Development the first stage of film production A Time 1 The amount of time can vary significantly 2 Development Hell a term describing a script that never gets out of development B High Concept 1 Most films in Hollywood today must be High Concept 2 It must be immediately accessible and easily understood 3 It must readily translate into visual terms 4 It must intersect with other discourses transmedia essentially C Personnel and their functions 1 Producer makes the script into a movie a Can be independent assigned by the studio or work for the studio 2 Executive Producer gets financing for the film or lends his name and reputation to the film to help it raise money 3 The screenwriter and director are also usually hired in this stage II Pre Production A Time roughly six months 1 When a film is greenlit for production they go through this period of staffing up finding locations casting and scheduling B Personnel and their functions 1 Line Producer Unit Production Manager breaks down the film s budget and schedules daily activities a Above the Line costs creative talent who negotiate salaries such as stars directors and prominent technicians such as cinematographers and production designers b Below the Line costs fixed salaries purchases costumes catering etc and rentals soundstages cameras lighting etc c Negative Cost the combination of above and below the line costs 2 Casting Director works with the director to run auditions and callbacks 3 Production Designer designs sets scouts locations with the DP a Production Designers team Art Director constructed sets Set Decorator Set Dressers Scenic Artists Property Master Greensman assistants b They are hired during pre production to create and set up locations Construction and set up continues throughout production 4 Costume Designer designing and acquiring all costumes a Team Costumers dress the actors seamstresses etc 5 The head of each production team hires their crew during this phase III Principle Photography A Time typically two months 1 Shooting Time the total number of days required to collect all the footage 2 Shooting Ratio the amount of film exposed divided by the amount used in the finished film B Personnel and their functions 1 Director s team Assistant Director 2nd AD 2nd 2nd AD Production Assistants a They run the set prepare teams keep track of schedule 2 Script Supervisor Continuity makes sure the script is covered and shots match 3 Director of Photography Cinematographer in charge of camera grip and lighting teams Works with the director to set up shots chooses lens movements lighting a Camera Team camera operator actually looks through viewfinder assistant camera 2nd assistant focus puller loader takes care of film b Lighting Team Gaffer head of lighting chief electrician rigging gaffer set up lights lay cable assistants c Grip Team grips carry and arrange equipment i Key grip manages grips dolly grip controls the dolly best boy key rigging grip assistant to the gaffer supervises rigging gaffers 4 Sound Team only two people run sound even on the largest sets a Sound Recordist Mixer the audio engineer keeps track of the audio caught on tape b Boom Operator Microphone placement and holding 5 Performers a principal cast most lines and action b supporting cast only in a few scenes c bit player one line or action d extra day player background no lines only there to fill space 6 Production Design team in charge of world of the film the visual incarnation of the setting see pre production a Set crew leadman in charge of swing gangs set carpenters on set dresser 7 Editing Team starts work during production see post production a Dailies a compilation of the day s footage assembled for the director IV Post Production A Time 6 months to 2 years 1 Workflow a Transfer footage to digital b Editing in non linear computer program AVID Final Cut Pro etc c Addition of computer generated effects and corrections d Output back to film for duplication B Personnel and their functions 1 Post Production Supervisor oversees all the post production teams and reports to the producer 2 Editing Team a Gathers and catalogues all footage orders and trims the images i Assembly cut a rough continuity of the movie ii Rough cut puts all the footage they want to use together iii Final cut refines the rough cut into a finished film b Editor manages editing staff assistant editors 3 Sound Team a Sound Designer heads sound unit makes aesthetic decisions about aural style b Sound Editors cut together soundtrack i Music Editors Sound Effects Editors Dialogue editors ADR Editors Foley Editors c Sound Mixers mix all the soundtrack elements at the proper levels into the final track d Foley Artists make additional sound effects in a soundstage e ADR Automatic Dialogue Replacement re records dialogue that was not properly captured on set 4 Music Team a Composer writes original score i Composers Team Conductor Orchestrators Musicians b Music Supervisor selects musical tracks for the entire film i Music Editor puts the tracks in the film 5 Special Effects Team a Visual Effects Supervisor oversees visual effects V Rating Marketing and Distribution A Time variable B The Ratings Board 1 Since 1968 the US uses a rating system rather than censorship 2 The Motion Picture Association of America uses citizen members who decide on rating 3 Ratings can be appealed or rejected in which case films are released unrated C Marketing 1 Film Market Trade Shows Film Festivals Showing all or part of a film at these events can raise more money secure distribution or gain free publicity 2 Publicity anything unpaid for that directs attention to the film a Talk show appearances news coverage press stories 3 Advertising paid for marketing for the film a Trailers commercials posters billboards magazine ads b The film s logo A graphic iconic representation of the film and its tagline typically appear on such ads 4 Merchandizing Ancillary products such as T shirts books soundtracks toys video games etc 5 Audience Research Sneak Previews Concept Studies etc 6 More recently there is viral marketing D Distribution 1 Distribution is the process of getting prints to exhibitors 2 Limited only is a few theaters usually in major cities 3 Platform start in some cities to gain word of mouth then expand 4 Saturation wide release on opening weekend on 2000 screens 5 New multiplatform release in theaters and on demand etc


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