GSU PHIL 1010 - 1010 Copyrighted Chapter 1 (40 pages)

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1010 Copyrighted Chapter 1



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1010 Copyrighted Chapter 1

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Pages:
40
School:
Georgia State University
Course:
Phil 1010 - Critical Thinking
Critical Thinking Documents

Unformatted text preview:

1 Critical Thinking and Arguments Call me Ishmael Some years ago never mind how long precisely having little or no money in my purse and nothing particular to interest me on shore I thought I would sail about a little and see the watery part of the world Herman Melville Moby Dick 2008 1851 1 Our prior cases make two propositions abundantly clear First the fact that the governing majority in a State has traditionally viewed a particular practice as immoral is not a sufficient reason for upholding a law prohibiting the practice neither history nor tradition could save a law prohibiting miscegenation from constitutional attack Second individual decisions by persons concerning the intimacies of their physical relationship are a form of liberty protected by the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment of the Constitution The petitioners are entitled to respect for their private lives The State cannot demean their existence or control their destiny by making their private sexual conduct a crime Their right to liberty under the Due Process Clause gives them the right to engage in private homosexual conduct without intervention of the government Lawrence v Texas 2003 17 18 material added and omitted Learning Outcomes After studying the material in this chapter you should be able to 4 LO1 Identify arguments LO2 Identify the conclusion and premise s of arguments LO3 Put arguments into standard form LO4 Identify main arguments and subarguments NOT FOR SALE What Is Critical Thinking 5 critical thinking is the skill of making decisions based on good reasons Learning to think critically is one of the most valuable skills you can acquire because it can be brought to bear on any issue Critical thinking has led people to create ideas and inventions that make life today dramatically better than it was in the past When you give reasons for what you believe you make arguments In this way critical thinking is linked to arguments The first passage on the previous page is the first sentence of Moby Dick a famous novel The second passage is part of the U S Supreme Court ruling that held that states may not ban private homosexual conduct The first passage doesn t make an argument The second does In this book we ll focus on passages that make arguments We ll work on identifying arguments and on determining whether arguments are good or bad What Is Critical Thinking Suppose that a professor in an economics course asks you to write a paper about whether gas prices will rise or fall over the next six months How should you decide what you believe One option would be to flip a coin Heads you decide to believe that gas prices will rise Tails you decide to believe that gas prices will fall Another option would be to consult an astrologer and believe what the stars tell you Neither of these is an example of critical thinking To use critical thinking skills to write your paper about gas



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