New version page

VCU POLI 107 - Exam 1 Study Guide

Type: Study Guide
Pages: 7

This preview shows page 1-2 out of 7 pages.

View Full Document
View Full Document

End of preview. Want to read all 7 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a GradeBuddy member to access this document.

View Full Document
Unformatted text preview:

CSD 455 1st Edition Exam 1 Study GuidePart One Citizenship in the Greek City-State Ideals of the Greek City-State:- Greek city-state was the focal point of social and political life- Thus it was the primary focal point of Greek political theory - Key characteristics:o Small in areao Small in population - Divided by class:o Slaves No part of political lifeo Resident foreigners  No part of political lifeo Citizens  Only people allowed to participate in the governance of thecity Citizenship entailed an obligation to serve- Embodies certain ideals:o Democracyo Importance of participating in civic lifeKey themes of Pericles’ Funeral Oration: Meaning of Versatility in the City-State:- Appears in Thucydides’ History of the Peloponnesian War- Conveys the emotional aspect of the city, and the deep meaning it held for its citizens- City is basis for ones being- Meaning:o CF 14 Customs is the basis of law One has a duty to obey the law and not question ito CF 14-15 “Our constitution does not copy the laws of neighboringstates; we are rather a pattern to others the imitators ourselves” Pericles is clearly prideful of his constitution Athens’ constitution is superior to any othero “Its administration favors the many instead of the few; this is why it is called a democracy. If we look to laws… he is not hindered by the obscurity of his condition” Power is shared by the many Laws promote the common interest rather than the individual interests Anyone can play a part in public life, and ones rank reflectsmerit rather than class or familyo “The freedom which we enjoy in our govt extends also to our ordinary life. There, far from… teaching us to obey the magistrates and the laws…” Freedom to pursue one’s private interests in secured by a shared duty to obey the law, which establishes the limits on one’s freedom according to the needs of the common good When others judge you for pursuing your private affairs, even if the affairs are in accordance with the law, this can create a psychological penalty- a sense of shame for rightfully enjoying one’s freedomo “Our public men have, besides politics, their private affairs to attend to, and our ordinary citizens, through occupied… but in the confidence of liberality” Private interests should not interfere with one’s obligation to the public interest Citizens who take no part in public affairs are useless Free discussion is an inherent part of wise actiono “I say that as a city we are the school of Hellas… power of the state acquired by these habits proves” Athenians are a breed apart Good citizen = versatile citizen, able to serve many functions in the interests of the city Athens’ empire and influence is rooted in its political systemGeneral Principles of Early Greek Political Theory Two Key Political Values: - Civic life is a life in common, where the happiness of one depends uponthe happiness of another- Achieving this common life is the driving question animating Greek PT- Two key political values were deemed to be integral in a harmonious common life: freedom and respect for lawo Freedom: Ensures that others will not interfere with your private pursuits Your private pursuits will not intrude upon others or upon one’s obligations to public lifeo Law: Promotes virtue among the citizenry by codifying understandings of right and wrong achieved through open, rational, and inclusive discussionSound, good laws thus create optimal conditions for the exercise of one’s freedom, and the process by which laws are made ensures that they are legitimateThe positions of Antigone and Creon vs. custom and universal law Importance of Reason in Antigone:- Lines 62-63o Antigone subordinates human law to universal law, and implies that any human law that runs against the universal law is null and void, which justifies her acts in breaking Creon’s ‘unnatural’ law- Lines 146-153o Any ruler that does not promote the well-being of the people has no claim to authorityo Any individual who promotes private over public interests is useless and worthy of contempt- Lines 522-529o City’s strength its domestic ordero Ruler must always be obeyed if he believes he serves the common good, even if his laws would appear to be unjust- Lines 542-549o Reason is man’s highest faculty, no single man can lay claim to possess it exclusivelyo Good laws will follow from open discussion among rational men- Lines 593-599o Ruling without reason is akin to tyrannyo A king who rules without the common good in mind will destroy the cityo Cities prosper when the input of the people is securedChanges in Greek Political Theory culminating in Socrates Socrates’ ‘chief legacy’:Socrates:- Socrates refined Sophist humanism and married it with traditional political philosophy based upon the physical sciencesChief legacy: virtue is knowledgePart Two Plato’s views on the political role of philosophers: - Plato believed philosophers should be the ultimate rulers b/c they werethe only ones who sought out the “real truth”- In a way, they would be the supreme rulers- Plato believes that only people who have been proven time and time again to make judgments that are in the best interests of society without clouding their judgment with personal interests should be fit torulePlato’s Class Structure:- Productive (Workers) — the laborers, carpenters, plumbers, masons, merchants, farmers, ranchers, etc. These correspond to the "appetite" part of the soul.- Protective (Warriors or Guardians) — those who are adventurous, strong and brave; in the armed forces. These correspond to the "spirit" part of the soul.- Governing (Rulers or Philosopher Kings) — those who are intelligent, rational, self-controlled, in love with wisdom, well suited to make decisions for the community. These correspond to the "reason" part of the soul and are very few.Function and nature of education under Plato:- Educators must have a deep care for the well-being and future of thosethey work witho Educating is a moral enterprise and it is the duty of educators to search for truth and virtue, and in so doing guide those they have a responsibility to teach- ‘Socratic teaching method’o Teacher must know his or her subject, but as a true philosopher he or she also knows that the limits of their knowledgeo Power of dialogue – the joint exploration of a subject – ‘knowledge will not come from


View Full Document
Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view Exam 1 Study Guide and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Exam 1 Study Guide and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?