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UT BIO 370 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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BIO 370 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 7The Scope of Evolutionary Biology (Lecture #1)- A scientific explanation that is devoted to understanding how populations change over time and how new forms of life arise.- Applied uses of evolutionary biology – o Medicine, disease, biotechnology, forensics, conservation.Why is evolutionary biology important?- Know what observations that evolution explains.o Biological diversity There is a hierarchical classification scheme of which encompasses all life forms through natural groupings. There are no completely unique species that do not have any sort of relatives.o Change of morphology over a series of time All species change over time. Inferences from:- Fossil record- Plant/animal breeding- Lab experiments- Emerging diseases Phylogeny – species split into independently evolving lineages.o Adaptation – “good fit” All organisms exhibit adaptations that enhance survival and reproduction. No organism is adapted perfectly in every single respect to its environment. An example is crypsis – the ability to hide or camouflage from its prey or from a predator.o Relationships among organisms All are carbon based. All follow a universal genetic code.- Ability to solve problems.o Crop yieldso Animal breedingo Managing epidemics of diseaseo Conservationo Preservation of biological diversity.- Know that evolutionary biology provides scientific proof for – o Origin of lifeo Diversity among organisms.Evidence for Evolution (Lecture #2)Terms to be familiar with.- Microevolution: a change from one generation to the nexto Changes in finches’ beak depth after El Nino event where there is less rain at the equator. Beak depth on average got bigger. Since there was less rain, the seeds changed and became harder to obtain and crack.o Antibiotic and pesticide resistance- Macroevolution: a dramatic change over time where novel forms of life can be derived from earlier formso Fossil recordo Biogeographic distribution caused by change in earth’s land masses- Speciation: an ancestral species gives rise to two independent species- What are the three alternative explanations of diversity and adaptation?o Evolution: species have one origin and change over timeo Transformism: species with multiple origins which possibly change but no diversificationo Creationism: species do not change- Know about factors dealing with descent with modificationo Homology: many species exhibit features with similar shape and design. The closer in relation, the more likely to share homology. Universal genetic code Embryological stageso Vestigial structures Structures that are degenerate and no longer functional as they used to be in their ancestors Snakes have tiny hind limbs that stick out from body. Whales evolved from a terrestrial organism to aquatic mammal and still contain various bones that represent life on land.o Suboptimal design – less than perfectly made Crossing of air and food pathway The recurrent laryngeal nerve- Know about natural selection.o ConvergencePopulation Thinking and Heritability (Lecture #3)- Know what is needed for natural selections to occur.o Reproductiono Heredityo Variations in inherited traits and in fitness among the different species- Know about different factors involving variation.o What influences phenotype of the organism? The genotype and certain environmental factors. Define genotype and phenotype. Define biological evolution.o Discrete polymorphismso Continuous- Relevances to evolutiono Only heritable variationo Only the genetic part of parent to child similarities- Important formulaso Phenotypic variance (VP) = variation of genetic factors (VG) + variation of environment (VE) + VGEo Heritability: h2 = VG/VP- Know everything relating to heritability. (Important concept)- Know about all types of natural selection.o Types of selection- Be able to differentiate in a chart/graph between little and much environmental influence on phenotypes.Genetics and the Origin of Variation (Lecture #4)- Genetics material that should be reviewed.o Chromosomes Number of them in humans Autosomes and sex chromosomes Alternate sex determination, environmentalo Nucleic acid DNA (the genetic basis of life for most) and RNA (some viruses) Nucleotides- Big form: purines, 2 rings- Small form: pyrimidine, 1 ringo Information flow Replication Transcription Translationo Genes Linkage mapping Recombination and its advantageso Terms that need to be known: gene, locus, alleles, haploid and diploid, homozygous and heterozygous, mendelian ratios.o Know the laws of inheritance Segregation Recombination- Independent assortment- Crossing overo Types of genetic mutations Mutations are random, meaning they are undirected.- Gene Mutationso Nucleotide substitutions Point mutations- Ex. Sickle-cell anemiao Insertions and deletions Transposable elements- Into regulatory or protein coding region Jumping genes- Very efficient at making copies of themselves and moving on- “genome parasites”- Ex. Human alu sequence Short tandem repeats- What are they useful for?- Same sequence repeated multiple times- Proliferate rapidly over evolutionary time Ex. Huntington’s Disease (HD)o Alterations of chromosomes and karyotypes What is a karyotype? Inversions, duplications, translocation, fission and fusion, polyploidizationo Other outside meansTheory of Natural Selection (Lecture #5)- Terms to know in relation to evolutionary changes of allele frequencyo Geneo Genotype Narrow Broado Evolutiono Allele frequencyo Population genetics- Be able to describe everything relating to the Hardy-Weinberg Theoremo Conditionso Assumptionso Null model- Know the relationship between allele and genotype frequencieso The simple model of selection Pt+1 = Pt/(1-sqt2)- Differentiate between the types of directional selectiono Against dominant alleleo Against recessive alleleo Know examples of each.- What is the heterozygote advantage and what does it entail?o Relation with respect to fitnesso Sickle-cell anemia example- Recall all related to frequency-dependent selection.Genetic Drift and Effective Population Size (Lecture #6 and #7)- What are the evolutionary forces and what are the types in each?o Deterministic Selection, mutation, migrationo Stochastic Genetic drift- Know about genetic drift and the integration of forces.o Definitiono Ex. Color blindness


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