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I. ReviewReasons for emphasizing similarities and differencesSo that you can see each of the authors of the NT have a different messages; its not that their contradictory messages, but they are trying to emphasize different things. Get us to see that we need to read each book on its own for what it has to say.Methods for studying the gospelsLiterary-historical method: king of approach that tries to establish literary genre of a work and how that genre works in its historical context-applied to Mark (it’s a biography) but have to understand how it worked in ancient times. Also apply this to revelationRedaction criticism-Gospel of Matthew. One establishes an authors sources and see how they have modified the sources. Can actually do redactioal method with Mark but its very complicated.Comparative criticismThe theory: a lot like redaction criticism but a distinctive difference. Redactional method assumes you know what the authors source is. Problems with doing this-what if we are wrong about the synoptic problem/what if we have thought that Mark was the source for Matthew but what if its the other way around?. Comparative method does something similar but doesn’t presuppose that you have established sources correctly. Not seeing how an author has changed its source; instead seeing how two books are similar and different with each other independently of whether one was the source for the other. Can do this with Matthew and Mark.Logic behind this is that if they have lots in common, the places they are different will show the distinctive emphasis of each one is. Way of trying to study piece of literature. Can use this with any two books on the planet.An example- The Genealogy (3:23-38)Found in both Luke and MatthewWhat matters that they are similar but differentStrange that Luke is the genealogy of Jesus in Chapter 3 (where he came from) would usually give it when they are born; don’t get it until after he is baptized. My pet theory is that Luke originally did not have Chapters 1 and 2. The first addition of Luke began with what is now Chapter 3, verse 1. Matthews is in Chapter 1.Pointed out that Matthew was emphasizing the Jewish of Jesus’ decent. Emphasizes that he has descended from father of Jews and King of the Jews. Genealogy goes back to Abraham, father of the Jews. He starts with Abraham. Luke’s goes the other direction-starts with Jesus and goes backwards (unusual, usually goes from ancestors to descendants). Luke has both Abraham and David in genealogy, but they are not emphasized. Two things that are so striking in Luke’s genealogy-Luke’s genealogy is different than Matthews from Joseph back to David, differents because Luke says that Jesus descended from David’s son Nathan, and Matthew says he descended from David’s son sothem.What people think-Matthew’s genealogy of Joseph and Luke is the genealogy of Mary. Problem with this-Luke is explicit that his genealogy is the genealogy of JosephWhy are they different? Didn’t know each other.What is even more important is how Luke’s genealogy ends. Luke doesn’t end with Abraham, it continues past Abraham and goes back to Adam (as in Adam and eve). Why would Luke emphasize Adam-Adam was the father of entire human race. Luke is stressing that Jesus is the savior of all people, Jewish and Gentile. See this by comparing it to the other genealogy.Matthew stresses Jesus JewishnessII. A redactional analysis of Luke: Luke also wrote the book of acts-spread of Christianity through the Roman empire after Jesus’s resurrectionThe death of JesusQuestion: Why does Jesus die (Cf. Mark 10:45, 15:39-40)People often talk about it still todayMost christens say that he died for the sins of the world and so people can have salvation. How does Jesus death bring salvation to anybody?In early Christianity, sometimes thought that b/c people were sinful, they belonged not to god but to the devil. In that understanding, Jesus died b/c he was paying the devil off to win peoples souls. His death was a ransom for peoples soulsOther Christians who said that he died as human sacrifice. In Jesus is the perfect sacrifice, sacrificed to God b/c people are really ticked off at people. Appeasement of god who is angry at you b/c of your sin. Sometimes is expressed that Jesus is atonement for sin-something happens to restore relationship that someone else has. Jesus death restores your relationship with godDeath of Jesus was a miscarriage of justice. People wrongly putting innocent man to death. When you realize this, you realize how sinful humanity is and you are. So when you recognize this, you recognize your sin and you repent your sin and god will forgive you. Difference between atonement and forgiveness. Suppose you owe me 1000 dollars and you cant pay cause you don’t have it. How do we deal with this? Suppose someone else pays it for you-that’s like atonement. Suppose I say I forgive the debt-that’s forgiveness, not atonementMark has a doctrine of atonement, Luke has a doctrine of forgiveness. Think this is shown by redactional analysisPossible answersMark 10:45- Jesus says the son of many did not come to be served but to serve, but to give his life as a ransom for many-Going die for the sake of other people. What happens when he dies? He is in shock and is silent and cries “god why have you forsaken me” doesn’t understand why he has to die, but the reader understands. Immediately curtain in temple rips-curtain was separating holy of holy’s from everything else-means that people now have access to god b/c Jesus has died. Centurion says truly this man was the son of god, when he saw that he died, he realized that he is the son of godfirst to receive salvation (gentile coming into faith before JewsLuke’s view: what does Luke do? Eliminates Mark 10:45. Luke’s gospel, curtain rips in half after Jesus announces that temple is going to be destroyed and now a time of darkness. While he’s hanging on cross that it rips, not after he dies. Why before? Maybe he doesn’t think that Jesus death is an atonement. Centurion doesn’t say this man was the son of god, says this man was innocent-the point is he’s innocent. Matters b/c what happens in acts. In acts apostles convert people to follow Christianity. When they do this they never say that Jesus death was an atonement/ransom. Instead what they say is that Jesus was innocent and you killed them. Makes people feel guilty and they repent and god forgives them. Death in


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