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UNCW GGY 130 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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GGY 130 1st EditionExam 1 Study GuideExam Review: Chapters 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, & 7Chapter 1: Describing Location What is the grid system that uses latitude and longitude called?o Graticule Latitude is the angle between the center of the Earth, the equator, and its position on the Earth; latitude is represented by horizontal east to west lines.  Longitude is the vertical imaginary lines that run from pole to pole.*Remember the 7 important lines of latitude and the 7 descriptive zones of latitude. Chapter 2: Atmosphere What benefits does the atmosphere provide?o Provides oxygen o Helps maintain water supplies o Protects Earth from harmful radiation Atmospheric Compositiono Main primary gases are nitrogen, oxygen, and argon; these do not affect the weather.o Main variable gases are water vapor, carbon dioxide, and ozone; these do affect the weather.o Particulates are non-gaseous particles in the atmosphere, many are hygroscopic (can absorb water and, thus, create clouds). These greatly affect the weather. The atmosphere consists of four thermal layers.o Troposphere: lowest 8-18km Temperature decreases with height Weather occurs here  Dynamically unstable Earth is the heat sourceo Stratosphere: 18-48km Temperature increases with height Heat source is the ozone layer “Stagnant air” leads this layer to be stableo Mesosphere: 48-80km Temperature decreases with heighto Thermosphere: 80+km Temperature increases with heightChapter 4: Insolation and Temperature What is energy?o Capacity to do work What are the three sources of energy?o Incoming solar radiationo Radioactive decay of minerals o Hydrothermal vents What is the difference between wavelengths coming from Earth as opposed to those coming from the Sun?o Radiation from the Sun is shortwave, while radiation from the Earth is longwave.*Peak energy from the sun is visible radiation.*Remember: There is an inverse relationship between the wavelength and frequency. EMR Interactions with Mattero Radiation is energy emitted from an object.o Absorption is when energy is absorbed and converted into other types of energy.o Transmission is when energy passes through matter.o Scattering is when solar radiation spreads out in an unpredictable manner. Remember the effects of Rayleigh, and Nonselective scattero Conduction is heat transferring through touching objectso Convection is heat energy moving vertically o Advection is heat energy moving horizontally What oceanic circulation feature is characterized by east to west movement resulting in warm eastern continental coastlines and cool western continental coastlines?o Subtropical Gyres *The arctic ice circle in the Northern Pacific is wider than the arctic ice circle in the Northern Atlantic due to “continental current blocking.”Chapter 5: Atmospheric Pressure and Wind What is pressure?o The force exerted by gas moleculeso Higher altitude results in lower pressureo Average pressure is 1013.25mbo Descending air has high pressureo Cold air has high pressure due to molecules being more compact *More gas molecules = higher pressure What is the difference between a cyclone and an anticyclone?o A cyclone is a high pressure system characterized by clear skies and calm weather.o An anticyclone is a low pressure system characterized by cloudy skies and precipitation. What does the term “adiabatic” refer to?o The changes in temperature caused by expansion or compression of air as it rises or descends. Descending air compresses and is referred to as adiabatic warming Ascending air expands and is referred to as adiabatic cooling What causes wind?o Insolation, which is the uneven heating of the Earth’s surface. Uneven heating results in low and high pressure systems on which winds movements are based.  What three factors determine wind’s direction?o Pressure Gradient force (Winds blow from high to low pressure systems)o Coriolis effecto Friction What are the Global Circulation Features and their trademark characterizations?o Hadley Cells and the ITCZ Hadley cells are characterized by radiation surplus, rising air, low pressure, and heavy precipitation The area between the Hadley cells marked by heavy precipitation is the ITCZ; this shifts as the seasons change.o Subtropical High Pressure Characterized as clear, warm, dry weather situated around the 30* level latitudes. (Aka “Horse latitudes”)o Trade Winds (Easterlies) A system covering the Earth between the two 25* level latitudes that is characterized by warm, dry winds originating in the east that become heavy with moisture asthey blow across oceans Reliable for ocean navigationo Surface Westerlies Systems originating in the west that covers the mid latitude zone.*Monsoons are distinctive seasonal precipitation patterns that result from thelarge seasonal shift of the ITCZ and the large difference in temperature between the continental landmass and the adjacent oceans. This effects the largest populations in the world (China and India).  Remember: Localized Wind Systemso Sea and Land Breezes are caused by daily differences in the temperatures of the neighboring water and land. Sea breezes occur during the day when the land is warmer and air blows in from the sea towards the land Land breezes occur during the night when the water is warmer and air blows out to sea from the lando Valley and Mountain Breezes Valley breezes occur when the mountain slopes are warm and the air rises Mountain breezes occur when the mountain slopes are cooland the air descends o Katabatic Winds are fast, dry winds that descend from higher elevation along with gravityo Feohn/Chinook winds originate in high topographic areas; high pressure systems lie in the windward side and low pressure systems lie in the leeward side.Chapter 6: Atmospheric Moisture What is evapotranspiration?o Water vapor added to the air from plant’s transpiration What is humidity?o The amount of water in the airo Specific humidity measures how many grams of water vapor per kilogram of dry airo Saturation specific humidity is the capacity of air to hold water vapor; warm air has a higher capacity.o Relative humidity shows how close air is to being fully saturatedo Dew-point temperature is the temperature at which full saturation is reached.*There is an inverse relationship between temperature and relative humidity; warm air has a low relative humidity because it has a


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