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MU BIO 116 - Cell Cycles

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Biology 116 1st Edition Lecture 6 Outline of Last Lecture II. Endomembrane System ContinuesA. Golgi Apparatus B. LysosomesC. VacuolesD. Plasma MembraneIII. Semi- Autonomous Organelles a. Mitochondria and ChloroplastsIV. Protein SortingV. Multicellularity a. Benefits and RisksVI. Transition to Multicellularitya. Creation of the ECMOutline of Current Lecture I. Tissues II. OrgansIII. ProkaryotesIV. Eukaryotes a. Cell Cycleb. Controli. ProteinsCurrent LectureTissues: a group of cells that have similar structure and function Types:Humans have: skin, epithelial, nervous, connectivePlants have: dermal, ground, vascularThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.Organs: collection of two or more tissues that perform specific functions Prokaryotes: Usually circular and single celled Has many proteins for packaging of DNA (must get a lot of DNA into a tiny space) and it controls how the genes are expressedUse FtsZ reproduce (creates a ring, constricts the cell, allowing it to divide into two daughter cells)First replicate chromosomes Divide cell (called cytokinesis)Ensure each daughter cell has a complete set of chromosomesEukaryotes: Cell Cycle-G0: resting phase, cells that have left the cycle and are not replicating G1: cells increase in size (bigger = signals to replicate DNA)S: DNA replication takes placeG2: continue to grow, getting ready for mitosis M (mitosis): growth stops, orderly partition of cells Centrosome replicates itself and moves to each end of the cell,It helps to pull the chromosomes apart (using microtubules),Thin nuclear membrane forms and a cleavage furrow splits the cell in twoLast steps are telophase and cytokinesis (cytoplasm separates) Only difference in plant cells is that a cell plate forms (not cleavage)Control: The entire process is extremely well controlled Proteins create checkpoints throughout the entire process, breakdowns in the checkpoints lead to cell mutation i.e. cancer suggested to know figure 15.4Ex) checks and repairs if DNA is damaged, checks to make sure all DNA was copied, checks at the end of each step, makes sure that all spindle apparatuses are workingThe two major proteins are cyclins: not always present in cell, it cycles within the cell. When it is there, the cell reproduces cyclin-dependant kinases: always there, tells the cyclin when to produce. When the cyclin is produced, a phosphate is added to the protein, which alters it and pushes it to the next stage in the


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