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ISU CHEM 177 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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CHEM 177 1st Edition Exam #1 Study GuideDefine:Chemistry:Matter:Elements:Atoms:Compound:Precision:Accuracy:Cation/ Anion:Empirical Formula:Limiting reactant:Theoretical vs. actual yield:Percent yield:Solvent: Solute:Precipitate:States of Matter (3 main)Heterogeneous Mix vs. Homogenous mix (include examples of each):What is a physical change and what does it consist of? List examples.What is a chemical change and what does it consist of? List examples.Types of separation:1.2.3.Units of measure (SI):a. Kilo-b. Centi- c. Milli-d. Micro-e. Nano-f. Size of atom-g. Degrees Kelvin-Significant Figure RulesAdd/Subtract:Multiply/ Divide:How many sig figs? Solve for letters d, e, and f.a. 7,000,000b. 5.1860c. 0.150d. 5.25*12.10= e. 14.7+16.879=f. 11.25/ (2.78+1.30)=Unit ConversionsExample: Convert 3.00 km/hr to m/secConvert 2.5cm3 to m3Briefly explain the role of each scientist in the discovery of the atom.a. Thompsonb. Millikanc. RutherfordWhat does Avogadro’s number and the significance?Draw out a chemical symbol of carbon, including its charge, mass number, and number of protons.What is an isotope?Periodic TableDraw out rough sketch of table, including where metal, nonmetals, and metalloids belong.Characteristics of metals: Characteristics of nonmetals:Molecular Compounds: nonmetal+ nonmetal, covalent (sharing) bondsIonic Compounds: metal+ nonmetal, ionic bonding (taking and giving away e-Polyatomic Ions: molecules with a net chargeName:a. SO42-b. CO32-c. NO3-d. OH-e. PO43-f. NH4+g. ClO3-h. Chlorate-i. Perchlorate-j. Chlorite-k. Hypochlorite-Chemical NomenclatureMolecular Compound(nonmetal + nonmetal)a. Organic compound (carbon+ Hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur) meth, eth, prop, but, pent…+ane Formula: CnH(2n+2)b. Inorganic compound:(prefix- mono, di, tri, tetra…)/element + (prefix)/element –ide-every other molecular compound other than organicExample: N2O= Dinitrogen MonoxideIonic Compound(metal + nonmetal)-Nonmetal + metal ending in –ide (no prefix)-If cation has single oxidation state (1st and 2nd group)-straightforward naming, ex: NaCl= Sodium Chloride-Name Zn(OH)2= -If cation has multiple oxidation states, use roman numerals to specify charge-example: name FeCl3Define these reactions:Combustion:Combination:Decomposition:Displacement:Balancing equations: same number of atoms on each side of each side in the equationPractice: C2+ O2 = CO2 + H2OFormula Weights (molar mass): sum of the atomic weightsDetermine percent composition: % composition= mass of eachelementtotalmass X 100-formula weight is equal (in mass of grams) of 1 mole of that substance*Know how to find empirical mass from analysis.*Know how to determine formula mass from empirical mass.Reactions in aqueous solutions: -Substances dissolve by dissociating, some complete and some stay attached-Ionic compounds mostly solute, to the extent at which the dissociate-Non-electrolytes stay intact (most molecular compounds like sugars)ElectrolytesStrong: complete dissociation in ionic substances-Ex: NaClNa+ + Cl--Single arrow: happens completely, double arrow: equilibrium and concentrations are staticWeak: mostly intact with small amounts of dissociation, equilibrium between intact substances-happens in weak acids/ bases such as carbonic acid, nitrous acid, and sulfurous acidNon- electrolytes: mostly alcoholsPrecipitation Reactions:Differences between molecular formula, complete ionic equation, and net ionic


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