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UTC HIST 2020 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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HIST 2020 2nd EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 10Lecture 1 (January 8)The Civil War EraTalk about the Freedmen’s Bureau.A summary of the Freedmen’s Bureau report:1) Freed people must be taught to fend for themselves.2) Freed people must not be taken advantage of.3) Freed people must get fair wages.4) Encourage education so that dependency decreases.Talk about the stages of Reconstruction:- 1) First Reconstruction: The South must acknowledge that slavery has been abolished. Also, 10% of states must pledge an oath of allegiance to the United States. - 2) Presidential Reconstruction: President Johnson wants to bring the southern states back into the Union without punishing them. This allowed for the black codes.- 3) Radical Reconstruction: This brought many Republicans into office who wanted to punish Johnson. He was impeached and one vote short of being convicted.- 4) Redemption: White supremacy is redeemed. The KKK helps put this in effect by using violence to force African Americans not to vote.What is the Compromise of 1877?The election of 1876 was very controversial. The compromise of 1877 put Rutherford B. Hayes into office over Tilden. Rutherford vowed not to make Republican laws in the South. Thus, there was no more black voting, troops in the South, etc. This marked the end of Reconstruction.Lecture 2 (January 13) The American WestDescribe the Homestead Act.The Homestead Act of 1862 gave Americans an opportunity an opportunity to expand out West.They could claim 162 acres of government land for free; the only requirement was for them to farm and develop the land. This encouraged many people to move West. The governmentwanted this so that they had a larger reign of power and a larger country.Talk about the assimilation of the Indians in the West:- Assimilation of Indians: Americans try to get Indians to adapt to Americans’ culture. - It was based on good intentions, but it turned out badly for the Indians.- The Dawes Act of 1887 tried to create separate Native American households. This was to try and convince Native Americans to act like and hold the same beliefs as Americans.- Native Americans lost 62% of their land due to the process of assimilation.Lecture 3 (January 15)The Gilded AgeDifferentiate between vertical and horizontal integration.Vertical integration is where a firm takes control of every step of the production of a good.For example, Carnegie Steel took over each step of steel production. They owned the trains, factories, ships, and mines which contributed in steel production and distribution. Horizontal integration is the ownership of as many firms as possible in a given industry by a given owner. John D. Rockefeller used horizontal integration by buying all other oil companies (he bought out his competitors and created a monopoly).How did industrialization change America?- 1) Machines were created to take human jobs. The machines produced goods much faster,and they were cheaper and more efficient.- 2) Industrialization led to urbanization, the movement of people into larger cities.- 3) Industrialization helped the economy, but hurt many families. This is because many families had family businesses. They would make a product at home and then sell it at the local market. This stopped when machines were created; many families has to begin work in factories for low wages.Lecture 4 (January 20)The Gilded Age ContinuedList and describe the changes made to African American voting at this time:1) The 15th amendment gives African Americans the right to vote.2) A poll tax was set in place which made voters pay each year in order to be eligible to vote. (This made it very hard for certain types of people to vote)3) The Literary Clause is put into effect. This makes it mandatory for Americans to take an extremely hard test to decide whether or not they can vote. Test takers must get a certain score to be eligible to vote.4) The Grandfather Clause is added as a loophole to the Literary Clause. It states that if your father or grandfather voted in 1860’s, you could vote. It was designed so that white men who had ancestors in America could still vote, but black and poor people couldn’t vote because they couldn’t pass the literacy tests.What is Plessy v. Ferguson?- Plessy v. Ferguson is an 1896 Supreme Court ruling that upheld the legality of Jim Crow legislation. It was ruled 8-1 that separation of race in public places was constitutional. The Court ruled that as long as states provided “equal but separate” facilities for whites and black, Jim Crow Laws didn’t violate the 14th amendment.Lecture 5 (January 22)Cities, Immigrants, and the NationTalk about nativism in America during this time period.Nativism is the belief that foreigners pose a serious danger to one’s native society and culture. It arose in America at this time because of all the immigration. Many Americans feared that immigrants would take their jobs for lower wages. This created ethnic tension. Many Americans tried to force the immigrants to assimilate. This was represented by the melting pot, a popular metaphor for immigrant assimilation into American society. According to this idea, all immigrants underwent a process of Americanization that produced a homogeneous society.Lecture 6 (January 27)ProgressivismDiscuss progressives:Progressives contended that old ways of governing and doing business did not address modern conditions. They attacked laissez-faire capitalism and regulate monopolies to limitthe power of corporate trusts. They advocated instituting an income tax along with other initiative designed to give citizens a greater say in the government. Progressives advocatedgovernmental intervention, but they didn’t want to radically alter capitalism or the democratic political systems.What is a Hull House?- A Hull House is a settlement house established in 1889 by Jane Addams and Ellen Starr. Hull house inspired a generation of young women to work directly in immigrant communities. Many of these women were college educated looking for jobs because they were shut out of jobs in male-dominated fields.- Hull houses provided recreational facilities, social activities, and educational classes. They also aimed to improve living and working conditions for the poor.Lecture 7 (February 3)Empire and WarsDiscuss imperialism and imperialism in America:Imperialism is the control of overseas places by force if necessary. It can lead to colonialism, the establishment of colonies in


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