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U of A BIOL 1543 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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Principles of Biology Exam # 1 Study Guide Downloads: 1 - 7Download 1Properties and Processes associated with life:- Order- Reproduction- Growth and Development- Energy Processing- Regulation- Response to the Environment- Evolution AdaptionEcosystem Consists of all the organisms living in a particular area, as well as the physical components with which the organisms interact, such as air, water, soil, and sunlightCommunity The entire array of organisms in an ecosystemPopulation Includes all the individuals of a particular species living in an areaOrganism Individual living thingTwo types of cells:Prokaryote- First to evolve- Very simple- Does not show organelles- Does not have a true nucleusEukaryote- Evolved from a prokaryote- Contains various organelles- Defined by a true nucleusAll ecosystems are closed except for solar energy in and heat outDNA The genetic information for constructing the molecules that make up cells and organellesMorphology The study of structuresNatural Selection An editing mechanism that occurs when populations or organisms, having inherited variations, are exposed to environmental factors that favor some individuals over othersFalsifiable predictions are made and testedTwo ways we learn about nature:1.Discovery Science via Inductive Reasoning2.Hypothesis Science via Deductive ReasoningDownload 2UniverseGalaxySolar SystemPlanetsMoons25 elements are essential to life- 96% of living matter is composed of C,H,O, and NThe Big Bang Theory The universe expanded rapidly from a single point and gradually cooled. This led to the formation of atoms and, eventually, galaxies and stars.How Galaxies were formed A giant star collapses, compacts densely, and then explodes into a supernova.Supernova The explosive death of a massive star.- Explosions leave behind a Nebula CloudNebula Clouds An immense interstellar cloud of dust and gas, primarily HydrogenHow to build a Solar System A cloud spins, flattens into a disk, the center forms a sun and the rest of the disk condenses into the planetsStars made every chemical heavier than hydrogen, helium, and lithium.Four Layers of Earth:1.Inner Core2.Outer Core3.Mantle4.Crust (thinnest layer)Caries The scientific term for tooth decay.- Prevented by FluorineAtom The smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an elementSubatomic Particles:- Protons (+)- Electrons (-)- Neutrons (none)Four Rules about Atoms:1.Atomic Number The number of Protons/Electrons2.Mass Number The sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus3.Atomic Mass Approximately equal to the mass number in Daltons4.The number of Neutrons equals the difference of the mass number and the atomicnumberAll atoms of a particular element have the same unique number of protons.- This is how they are distinguished.Isotopes Atoms of a particular element have the same number of protons and behave identically in chemical reactions, but they have different numbers of neutronsRadioactive Isotope One in which the nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off particles and energyBondsChemical Bonds The attraction that holds atoms close togetherCovalent Bond Two atoms, each with an unpaired electron in its outer shell, actually share a pair of electrons- Enables the atom to fill its outer shellNonpolar Covalent Bonds Electrons are shared equally between atomsPolar Covalent Bonds The unequal sharing of electrons- These have a tendency to be more activeHydrogen Bonds Cohesion Surface TensionCohesion The intermolecular attraction between like moleculesSurface Tension A measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid.- Acts as if a thin elastic film were covering the liquid.Water is the universal solvent of life, regardless of the solute.- Water is less dense as a solid than a liquid.o Hydrogen bonds hold molecules in ice further apart than liquid water.Evaporative Cooling When a substance evaporates, the surface of the liquid that remains behind cools down- Occurs because the molecules with the greatest energy leave.Download 3Life’s molecular diversity is based on the properties of carbon- Hydrocarbons Compound of only hydrogen and carbonIsomers Molecules with the same molecular formula but different structuresHow Carbons Vary:1.Size/Length2.Branching3.Multiple BondsPrefixes and Suffixes to know:- Hydro Water- Lysis Break- Di Two- Phobic Fear- Ose Sugar- Ase EnzymeFunction Groups Groups of atoms that confer specific properties to a groupFunctional Groups of Organic Compounds:1.Hydroxyl Groupa. –OHb. Ex. Alcohol2.Carbonyl Groupa. C=Ob. Ex. Aldehyde, Ketone3.Carboxyl Groupa. –COOHb. Ex. Carboxylic Acid4.Amino Groupa. –NH2b. Ex. Amine5.Phosphate Groupa. –OP32-b. Ex. Organic Phosphate (ATP)Four Major Classes of Biological Molecules:1.Carbohydrates2.Lipids3.Proteins4.Nucleic AcidMonomers make chains of polymers (builds molecules)- Cells link monomers to form polymers by a dehydration reaction- Hydrolysis is used when breaking down monomersCarbohydrates- The simplest monomers are monosaccharaideso Glucose and Fructose are Isomers (sugar)- 2 monomers form disaccharideso 2 or more form polysaccharidesLipids- Consist of carbon and hydrogen atoms linked by nonpolar covalent bonds- They are grouped together because they are hydrophobic (afraid of water)- Considered an exception to the monomer-polymer concept because we do not seerepeating units- Fats (triglycerides) are lipids whose main function is to store energy- Naturally Occurring Steroids:o Testosteroneo Estrogeno Glucocorticoidso Mineralocorticoids- Anabolic steroids are synthetic variants of testosteroneo Gynecomastia The growth of abnormally large breasts in menProteins- Polymers constructed by amino acidso Some proteins are enzymes- Enzymes Proteins that regulate chemical reactions- Peptide bonds hold together amino acid monomers to form polypeptides (proteins)Each Amino Acid Contains:1. An Amino Group2. A Carboxyl Group3. An R Groupa. This group varies; Distinguishes each of the 20 amino acids (determines properties)Nucleic Acids- Information-rich polymers of nucleotideso Nucleotides are made of sugar, phosphate, and a nitrogenous baseDownload 4Planet Earth was formed 4.6 billion years agoFossilized prokaryotes called stromatolites date back 3.5 billion years- Fossil A remnant of an organism of a past geological age embedded and preserved in the


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