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IUB SPH-R 311 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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Defined: Process of optimally utilizing human resources to achieve predetermined goals and objectives in the most efficient and effective way possibleManagement Styles:Tough guy or gal management“Its my way or the highway”“It had better be on my desk by the end of the day”“Mess up one more time, and your out of here”Nice Guy or Gal ManagementBeing overly accommodatingCant put foot downNot effectiveIdeal CompromiseInspire employees to do their best and establish a working environment that allows them to reach their goalsFind out what motivates people…everyone is different1. Planninga. Developing & formulating the course of action needed to accomplish your objectives2. Organizationa. Determining what activities need to be accomplished to get the job done.3. DirectingInfluencing, guiding or supervising employees in their jobs4. Controllinga. Monitoring and taking corrective action when necessary1. Frederick TaylorDevelop for every job a scienceSelect workers with right abilities for the jobGiving incentivesSupport workers by planning their work2. Frank + Lillian Gilbreth – motion studies as a management toolBrick laying- motion + fatigue studyUnnecessary movements**Therbligs  names turned backwards breaking down processMake tasks faster and less taxingTested research and studies on families3. Henri FayolAdministrative principles  foundations of the 4 functions of management todayForesightOrganizationCommandCoordinationControl“Believed that management could be taught”4. Max weber bureaucratic  most rational organization methodClear division of laborClear hierarchy of authorityFormal rules/ proceduresPromotion based on meritU.S. military  bureaucracySlow down process with too many rulesResistant to changeNot customer focusedBehavioral (Human Relations) Approach Theories:1. Elton mayoHawthorne studiedAttention paid to workers increased the workers sense of importance2. MaslowHierarchy of needs3. Douglas McGregor’s Theory XYTheory X:Workers passive and without motivationManagement must direct and motivateTheory Y:Relies upon higher order motivesWorkers capacity for self motivation and self directionLinkage to self fulfilling prophecies4. Chris Argyris’s theory of adult personalityManagers who treat people positively and as responsible adults will achieve extraordinary productivityExpand job responsibilities, allow more task variety5. Mary Parker FollettOrganizations as communitiesEmphasis on power with rather than power over peopleA community based approach with the idea that natural leaders are born within the groupA skillful leader influences by stimulating othersThe idea of fluid leadership where leaders and followers are in a relationshipContemporary theories + management trends:Total quality managementManagers facilitate employees participation in the work process and decision makingLearning organizations5 disciplines leadershipOutcome based management:Rooted in public and non profitAgency carefully plans and sets priorities with the purpose of realizing quality results rather than quantified resultsStrategic management:Philosophy that assumes planning improves performance by setting strategies that the staff tries to achieve to strengthen the overall organization6 steps1. Great ManLeadership is inherent, great leaders are born, not made2. TraitAssume that people inherit certain qualities and traits that make them better suited to leadership- certain personality and behavioral characteristics]3. ContingencyNo leadership style is best in all situations, success depends upon a number of variables (the relationship b/t leader and the group, the task structure, and power of the leader)4. Situational Leaders choose the best course of action based upon situational variables. 3 factors affect the leader’s decisions: the situation, the capability of the followers and the capability of the leader.5. BehavioralPeople can learn to become leaders through teaching and observation – great leaders are made not born6. ParticipativeTaking input of others into account while leading-encourage participation and contributions from group members (usually seen in business settings- leaders facilitate)7. TransactionalFocus on the role of supervision, organization and group performance. When the group is successful, they are rewarded, when they fail they are reprimanded or punished.8. Relationship or transformational theoriesFocus is upon the connections between leaders and followers. Leaders motivate and inspire people by helping group members see the importance and higher good of the task. Leader wants each person to fulfill his or her potential. These leaders have high ethical and moral standards.SERVANT LEADERSHIP:The leader’s priority and motivation is to serve others. Follower’s needs are ahead of leaders needs.Inspire hope and encourage the best in othersDifference b/t servant and transformational leadersTransformational help followers achieve group goalsServant- service to followersA servant leader focuses on the followers and transformation leaders focus on the group goals.Commercial, profit oriented, market driven, customer-oriented agenciesFunding strategiesSole proprietorBusiness owned by single individualPersonally, financially responsibleRetains all decision makingPartnershipTwo or more people as co-ownersUnlimited liability:General partnership where both owners are liable for debt or legal problemsEach partner has the same liabilityLimited liability:One owner doesn’t have as much responsibility because they didn’t invest as much and don’t share the same profitsLimited partnershipOnly responsible to a certain amount and what they put in is the level to what they are responsible forMight not actively be involved in the management of the businessHow business of meeting is conductedThree T’s of board representation:1. Time (time to give to organization)2. Treasure (money)3. Talent (some talent there bringing to the board or connection)a. Elected or appointedb. Need to reflect diversity of organizationc. Reflect diversity of communityd. Boards should be around 5-7 peopleCreates partnershipsGenerates new ideas from all levelsHelps prioritize resources to ensure efficiencyEliminates programs that are no longer viableCreates benchmarks to determine successWhat are other businesses doingIf you want to be the best you beg, borrow and stealSimilar service providers in other communities that are doing well-


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