New version page

BU PSYC 362 - Psyc362Notesday4 2/5/15

This preview shows page 1 out of 3 pages.

View Full Document
View Full Document

End of preview. Want to read all 3 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a GradeBuddy member to access this document.

View Full Document
Unformatted text preview:

Psyc 362Class Notes for Exam 1--Chapter 2 (beginning of 3 at end)2/5/15Properties of AP:● All-or-none event, such that the initial depolarization will either reach threshold and neuron will fire or won’t● AP is spread down the axon membrane, such that successive patches of the membrane are depolarized (in non-myelinated axons)● AP has a fixed amplitude, a conduction velocity (meters/sec), and a refractory period (inwhich stimulation will not produce AP--the firing rate is limitedSaltatory Conduction--conduction of AP by myelinated axons...**********************● in myelinated axons, the AP has to jump from node to node so depolarization takes place at each node. ● Saltatory Conduction speeds up conduction velocity, making myelinated axons faster! Conduction velocity is also proportional to axon diameter, such that the thinker the axon is, the faster the velocity. Fortunately, myelination allows smaller diameter axons to conduct signals quickly. As a result, more axons can be placed in a given space if myelinated.● The length of the membrane must be specific so an action potential isn’t lost due to resistance of the travel through nodes, like a cable. Due to this resistance, there is gradual reduction of conduction of the AP under myelin sheath, yet AP is regenerated at all nodes of Ranvier. ● movement of ions in nodes is active, movement under myelin sheath is passive/done by diffusion● The type of depolarization matters (PSP)Communication within the Neuron ● Rate Law-with AP conduction, the rate of firing determines the intensity of stimulus (howmany APs per unit time). Variations in the intensity of a stimulus or…**********************● What happens as a result of change in membrane potential is dependent on which channels are open(ed).● Local/grated potentials-losing energy/size as they move through the membrane. They are carried along the membrane degrading with time and distance and can fail to produce an AP○ LP generally generates form dendrites and soma, but AP mostly from axon (occasionally dendrite). Also, amplitude change vs no change.Intercellular communication● Synapses/synaptic cleft-the physical gap between pre- and postsynaptic membranes.○ presynaptic is typically on the axon, having axon terminals which contain (1) mitochondria to provide energy, (2) vesicles that contain neurotransmitters, and (3) cisternae, parts of the golgi apparatus that recycle vesicles. ■ Vescicles lie “docked” near the presynaptic membrane until the AP arrives at the terminal; the AP will open voltage-dependent Ca++ channels, which allows the entry of Ca++ into the axon. the Ca++ ionschange the structure of proteins that bind the vesicles to the presynaptic membrane resulting in the opening of fusion pores (opens and merges the vesicles and presynaptic membrane to release the contents of the vesicle into the synapse. The released neurotransmitters diffuse across the cleft and interact with the next neuron.○ postsynaptic membrane can be a (1) dendritie/axodendritic synapse, (2) soma/axosomatic synapse, or (3) axon/axoaxonic synapse. ■ Postsynaptic thickening lies under the axon terminal and controls membrane receptors for neurotransmitters.○ Neurotransmitters bind to Postsynaptic receptors which, when activated, open/alter postsynaptic ion channels that allow for the flow of ions through the membrane. This can produce either hyperpolarization or depolarization PSP, depending on which ion channel opens. ■ Ion channels can be altered by these receptors directly with ionotropic receptors. 3 possible results1. inflow of Na+ causes depolarization causing (EPSP)2. outflow of K+ causes hyperpolarization (IPSP)3. inflow of Cl- causes hyperpolarization (IPSP)■ Ion channels can also be altered indirectly with metabotropic receptors. There are two types and both require energy.1. Neurotransmitters attach to receptors which then release another chemical to activate G Protein which then activates an ion channel2. Neurotransmitters may also bind to receptors, activate the G protein which submits a breakaway that activates enzymes to produce messengers which would then open the channel.○ Neural integration is the interaction of the effects of excitatory and inhibitory synapses on a particular neuron. So, if an excitatory and inhibitory synapse become active simultaneously, the IPSP and EPSP would interact and the AP is not triggered in the axon. ■ involves the algebraic summation of PSPs. This means a predominance of EPSPs at axon will result in an Action potential , but if the PSPs don’t drive the axon membrane past the threshold, no AP will occur. ○ Termination of PSP can be done in the following ways:■ Binding of Neurotransmitters to PS receptors resulting in a PSP■ with Reuptake of neurotransmitters back into the cytoplasm of the PS membrane. This is energy efficient because the NT’s can be recycled■ enzymatic deactivation○ Autoreceptors: molecule located on neuron that responds to the neurotransmitters released by the neuron by regulating internal processes, including synthesis and the release of neurotransmitters. They do NOT change the membrane potential.○ Axoaxonic synapse■ can produce presynaptic inhibition in which the presynaptic terminal buttons reduce the amount of neurotransmitters released by the postsynaptic terminal buttons. ■ can also produce presynaptic facilitation in which the presynaptic terminal buttons increase the amount of NT released by the next neuron.● Non-synaptic chemical communication: ○ neuromodulators: secreted substances that act like neurotransmitters but are not restricted to the synaptic cleft, but are instead able to diffuse throughout the extracellular fluid. Peptide: amino acid chains that are joined by peptide bonds. Most are hormones, which means they are released from endocrine glands (secrete chemicals into external fluid and capillaries/blood stream) and affect target cells (contain receptors for particular hormones) of other organs.CH3 Neuroanatomy● Neuroaxis-imaginary line drawn through the spinal cord up to the rest of the brain. ● Anatomical directions exist to help understand the brain/body relative to the neuroaxis.○ anterior (rostral): toward the head○ posterior (caudal): toward the kill○ ventral (inferior): toward the stomach/belly○ dorsal (superior): toward the back (top of head)● Location in brain: ○ Ipsilatural--same side of the brain○


View Full Document
Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view Psyc362Notesday4 2/5/15 and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Psyc362Notesday4 2/5/15 and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?