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UNCW SOC 105 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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SOC 105 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 10Lecture 1 (January 14)General Orientation:- Birth of Social Sciences- Thinking sociologically- Sociological methods- Sociological theory and theoristsSociological Imagination (C. Wright Mills)- Understand human behavior in terms of the intersection of social structure and culture, history, and biography.- Personal troubles deal with an individual versus public issues deal with the aggregate. - Modern society was born as a result of three great revolutions: political, scientific, and industrial. - Political revolution took place in late 18th century and began in Western Europe in 1789 and the United States in 1776.- Cultural movements that contributed were the renaissance, protestant reformation, and the enlightenment. - The philosophes (Locke, Rousseau, Jefferson, Voltaire, Montescue) had new ideas about how society should be structured. They said that humans have the capacity to reason, and this gives them rights that society can’t take away. - Europe was the first modern society. They had a Revolutionary Doctrine of inalienable rights. Before this there was feudalism in Europe where most people were serfs and hadno mobility within the system. They were told that it couldn’t get better because God had ordained them to be a serf.- The American dream is that each generation can do better than the one before them: this is possible because of the ideas of the philosophes. Lecture 2 (January 16) - The scientific revolution also aided in the birth of modern society. - Both the scientific and political revolution was a result of philosophical and cultural development. - From 1946 to 1964 78 million babies were born. (Baby boomers).- The industrial revolution took place because the worlds population doubled, giving rise to a need to organize society. People used sciences and the capacity for reason to study society. Sociological Theory and Methods of Research - The Natural or Scientific method can be supplied to society. This method focuses on the aggregates and patterns instead of the individuals.- “Social Facts “ – Emile Durkheim (1855-1917)- An example of a social fact is language. Durkheim says that there are external to the individual as well as coercive over the individual. - Durkheim studied patterns, or social structures, and related them to other patterns. He used the scientific method:o Systematic observationo Hypothesis testing, verification, and falsification You develop a research hypothesis and a null hypothesis, and try to disprove the null. o Data are quantitative Aggregate patterns Variations (variables and relationships) Descriptive statistics, then correlation, then causationLecture 3 (January 21)Interpretive Sociology (Interactionism)- This type of sociology focuses on the definitional processes and interaction. It occurs at the symbolic level, or the level of meaning. - Interpretive sociology uses a lot of fieldwork. There is direct observation, participant observation, and ethnography. - The data collected in interpretive sociology are qualitative.- This is a microcosmic approach (instead of aggregate or macro). - This approach attempts to put a human face on the research. It asserts that numbers are only a part of the puzzle; we need to put a face to what’s going on. Numbers and the human faces together are complementary. Major Theoretical Approaches and Theorists in Sociology- Conflict Theory: Derived from Karl Marx (from Europe (Germany), 1818-1883). Marx lived in Europe right after the 3 great revolutions occurred.- Marx asserted that scarce resources are unevenly distributed among different social groups; which causes inequality. - Inequality is the source of conflict. - Economy is the most important sector of society, and therefore is the chief source of conflict. Because the owners of the means of production are in conflict with the workers.Lecture 4 (January 23)- Functionalism: Developed by Emile Durkheim (from France, 1855-1917). - This approach focuses on the relations between a social while (a group or society) and its parts (it’s individuals)- “Institutional spheres” are areas of social action such as a family or the economy. - “Function” is the purpose that some action or part of society serves to maintain the whole.- Each part of the institutional sphere serves a purpose and all of the parts have to work together. - One of Durkheim’s fundamental ideas though was that there is always one part of the whole that doesn’t fit in. He said that this part serves a fundamental purpose, because we define ourselves based off of them, someone that we don’t approve of.- For example; crime and deviance serve some sort of positive function for the overall good of society. (Any universal mechanism must be there for a good reason). We are united against crime. This helps maintain group identity and solidarity. - Interpretive Approach: Developed by Max Weber (German, 1864-1920)- “Verstehen” means understanding. - Weber wanted to know how people understand themselves.- He said that people act the way they do because of shared understandings. - Intersubjectivity – both people in a situation must define the situation similarly and act together. People act on the basis of meanings and how they define social situations. - Symbolic Interaction: Developed by George Herbert Mead (American, 1863 – 1931)- Studies how we become who we are (nature vs. nurture)- Takes into consideration who your parents are and what they teach you. - Studies the social processes involved in creating and maintaining a given reality- Creation of the social self, your identity.- The way we organize language and parts of speech tells us a lot about how humans think; language is one of the main symbols (sign system) that humans use. Key Sociological ConceptsCulture- Cultural anthropology is the most similar discipline to sociology. It studies the role of culture and why people organize themselves as they do.- Each discipline is explained based on a key or focal idea.- Culture  An inherited system of symbolic forms and moral demands that control individual behavior. o Inherited means to have been learned; someone taught and passed down to you.Culture is acquired by nurture, not nature. o Symbolic forms are how we build and organize the worldo Moral demands are things such as religion and the 10 commandments. Lecture 5 (January 26)- Culture  An inherited system of symbolic forms and moral


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