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CORNELL BIOMG 1350 - Macromolecules

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BIOMG 1350 1st Edition Lecture 2Outline of Last Lecture I. Microscopy and OrganellesOutline of Current Lecture II. CarbohydratesIII.Nucleic Acids: DNA/RNAIV.General Information of GeneticsCurrent Lecture- Macromolecules:o Our body is 70% water and 30% chemicals o They can be very largeo Macromolecules are made up mostly (99%) of N, C, H, O… 9%  Na, Mg, K, Ca, P,S, Clo Examples: Sugars  polysaccharide Amino Acids  protein Nucleotides  nucleic acid- Carbohydrates:o Building blocks: sugarso Monosaccharide (ex. Glucose), Disaccharide (Ex. Sucrose), Oligosaccharide (Ex. Glycogen  energy storage in animals, cellulose  structural support [plants]), Polysaccharide o Condensation reaction: join two molecules together by getting rid of a water molecule- Nucleic Acids: o DNA: genetic molecules (deoxyribose nucleic acid) Uses bases AGCT 5’ to 3’ end is the direction of synthesis (done by DNA polymerase) In chromosomes, DNA is double stranded Base pairing: A-T (stabilized by 2 hydrogen bonds) and G-C (stabilized by 3hydrogen bonds) Has sugar phosphate backbone- highly charged and polar  DNA replication is semi-conservative (one strand is kept same as parent)o RNA: information transfer (ribonucleic acid)These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute. N-base, which consists of a single ring (pyrimidines like cytosine, uracil, and tyrosine) and a double ring (purines such as adenine and guanine), sugar (removal of oxygen from sugar determines DNA vs. RNA), phosphate (nucleotides) Nucleotides joined together by phosphodiester linkage Has a hydroxyl group that prevents RNA from being double stranded AUGC sequence DNA transcribed by RNA polymerase into mRNA- This starts at the promoter sequence- This ends at the terminator sequence “Central Dogma”= DNA transcribed into mRNA which is then translated into proteins Some types of RNA:- mRNA: messenger RNA= protein coding- rRNA: ribosomal RNA = protein synthesis- tRNA: transfer RNA = protein synthesiso Genes: Gene expression is very controlled Human genome has about 21,000 genes Mutations causing a genetic disease can identify the relevant gene and


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