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OSU BIOLOGY 1114 - The Theory of Evolution

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Biology 1114 1st Edition Lecture 3Outline of Last Lecture II. Types of SelectionA. ArtificialB. NaturalC. “Art factual”D. SexualIII. The agents of these types of selectionsa. Humansb. Predators/the environment/climatec. femalesIV. Mutations: Traits occur randomly through genetic mutationsV. Natural Selection has NO GOALOutline of Current Lecture VI. StrategyE. How organisms surviveVII. Famous Scientists that contributed to the theory of EvolutionVIII.Types of Selection Graphically RepresentedIX. Other Means of Evolutiona. Genetic Drifb. Founder Effectc. Bottleneck effectX. The two levels of Evolutiona. Macroevolutionb. MicroevolutionCurrent Lecture- Recap from last lecture:o Process: Evolutiono Mechanism: Sexual, artificial, natural, and artifactual selectiono Agents: humans preferences, predation, elements, environment, females, and climate- StrategyThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.o The various traits that organisms manifest that contribute to their survival and reproduction/not goal oriented, seems active and directed because agents exert pressure selectively but is not o The agents themselves are mindless and operate on mutations that occur at random- Famous Scientists of Evolutiono Alfred Wallace wrote to Darwin: he had done exactly what Darwin was in the process of doing (looking at changes in fossils and organisms)o Linnaeus: Came up with the nomenclature of classification so that all organisms had one nameo Lyeil: studied modern geology and showed how old the earth waso Thomas Malthus: an economist who wrote the Principle of Population Originally devised the idea that nature only supplies ample resources sparingly, so it controls population sizes and makes resources a necessity to fight for- Darwino Observations: Animals produce as many offspring as possible (originally stated by Malthus) Competition means that some organisms will live and some will die (originally stated by Malthus) Every individual varies from other individuals Some variations are a result of offspring from favorable parentso Inferences: Offspring are more likely to survive if they have favorable traits from favorable inheritances These favorable inheritances occur over many generations- What is a theory?o The culmination of many tested and accepted hypothesis that support one another and that together come to the same conclusion- What makes a theory correct?o There could be evidence that falsifies it, but it has never been found- Different types of Selection graphically representedo Stabilization (the typical allele is selected for)o Directional (the allele that is selected for shifs from one extreme to the other)o Disruptive (the two extremes are both selected for)- Genotype vs. Phenotypeo Every organism possesses a genotype (genetic traits) that manifest in its phenotype (what shows)o Selection operates on the individual, but only the population evolveso Selection can only operate on the phenotype, but the population’s genotype changes- Other Means of Evolutiono Genetic Drif: the bottleneck and founder’s effect Bottleneck effect: a natural disaster occurs and leaves a depleted gene pool Founder effect: one founder creates a new population and the alleles are similar to that of only the founder and not the original population- Gregor Mendelo Heritable Factors: studied pea plants to come up with the idea of genetics- Two levels of Evolutiono Microevolution: a change in allelic makeup at the population levelo Macroevolution: a change in species from one into another or from one into two- Macroevolutiono First, novel organismal traits arise by chance, and the interaction of all abiotic factors determines which organisms surviveso Then the interaction of proximal organisms determines what surviveso Two types of macroevolution Allopatrick: two populations differentiate in two separate geographical areas Sympatrick: two populations differentiate in the same geographical area- Steps of Speciationo Separation by geographyo Separation by reproductive isolationo Genetic divergence by accumulation of


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