ECU NUTR 1000 - Final Exam Study Guide (30 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide


Chapter 11, 14, 15

Study Guide
East Carolina University
Nutr 1000 - Contemporary Nutrition
Contemporary Nutrition Documents
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NUTR 1000 003 Exam 4 Study Guide Lectures 19 12 Lecture 19 September 7 Chapter 11 Nutrition and Fitness What is Physical Fitness and Why is it Important Physical Fitness good health or good physical condition is primarily the result of exercise and proper nutrition o 5 Basic Components of Physical Fitness Cardiorespiratory Endurance Ability to sustain cardiorespiratory exercise for an extended period of time ex Running biking Cardiovascular respiratory systems must provide enough oxygen and energy to muscles Muscle strengthening Ability to produce force for brief time ex Weight lifters body builders cheerleaders ballet dancers Muscle endurance Ability to exert force for brief time ability to sustain the lift for a long period Flexibility Range of motion around a joint improved with stretching o Reduces risk of injury o Gymnast vs Toe Touching Stretching o Static relax then extend the muscle o Dynamic stretching muscles while moving o Ballistic bouncing greater chance of injury Body Composition Proportion of muscle fat water and other body tissues that make up body weight can change w o changing body weight Redistribution of weight More muscle vs fat muscles are more compact than fat Health Benefits of Physical Activity Nearly half of American lead a sedentary life physical activity is essential for long healthy life Physical Activity includes o Day to day activities o Exercise Physical activity and consuming a healthy diet benefit everyone Improves health and fitness o Assists in weight management improved body composition Reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and of developing certain cancers o Improves overall cardiac function strengthens heart muscle o Improves blood lipid regulation increases HDL and helps decrease LDL Reduces risk of type 2 diabetes risk Improves bone health Enhancement of mood Physical Fitness Programs Based on 5 components of fitness Get the most out of Physical Fitness programs by using the FITT principle o Frequency Intensity Type Time o American College of Sports Medicine Frequency of physical activity 60 minutes week of moderate intensity activity fr some health benefits 60 to 90 minutes daily to lose weight effectively 150 min week of moderate intensity aerobic activity for substantial health benefits Intensity of physical activity Rate of perceived exertion RPE measures intensity of cardiorespiratory exercise Target heart rate shows exercise intensity through heart rate of maximum Repetition maximum RM refers to intensity of strength training 1 RM is the max weight that can be lifted one time Type of physical activity Several types of exercise Time duration of physical activity Injuries can occur if one exercises too frequently or with too much intensity The Progressive Overload Principle can help improve fitness over time o The body adapts to physical activities producing fitness plateau o Modify one or more FITT principles to increase exercise and improve fitness Lecture 20 How are Carbohydrate Fat and Protein Uses during Exercise Physically Fit regular physical activity right foods and fluids Energy production is accomplished 2 ways o Anaerobic does not require oxygen ATP adenosine triphosphate CP creatine phosphate o Aerobic requires oxygen Energy Metabolism For anaerobic production of energy the body relies heavily on two high energy molecules in the muscle cells ATP adenosine triphosphate is the major energy containing compound ATP is composed of a molecule of adenosine attached to a tail of 3 phosphate atoms When one of these phosphates is removed energy is released as a byproduct resulting in ADP adenosine diphosphate ATP is stored in limited supply in the cell Breakdown can support only a few seconds of intense exercise 2nd high energy molecule in the muscle cell is Creatine phosphate a compound containing creatine attached to a single phosphate Energy is produced when the phosphate is split off from the creatine The free phosphate atom joins with ADP to form ATP This process regenerates ATP Creatine phosphate is produced in the body liver and kidneys Creatine phosphate is also obtained from foods esp meat and fish A small amount of creatine is stored in the muscles Depleted after about 10 seconds of high intensity activity What Fuels Our Activities Continued exercising brings a shift from anaerobic to aerobic brings on heavy breathing and an increased oxygen intake ATP cannot be generated fast enough Body shifts from the anaerobic energy pathway to the aerobic pathway At this point the body begins to burn cho glucose and fat fatty acids and some protein to produce ATP The type and amount of energy that is used depends on intensity and duration of exercise your nutritional status your level of physical fitness Cho and fat contribute most while protein is best used for muscle growth and recovery Muscle glycogen o Carbohydrate is the primary energy source during any exercise o Storage 650 gms x 4 calories gram 2600 kcals Most CHO is stored in the muscles for ready use Average adult male glycogen stores 525 gms muscles x 4 2100 kcals 100 gms liver x 4 400 25 gms blood x 4 100 2600 kcals Enough energy for about 2 hrs of moderate exercise Well trained muscles store 20 to 50 percent more glycogen than untrained muscles Liver glycogen is converted to glucose and dumped into the bloodstream maintains normal blood glucose during activity and rest Blood glucose is the energy source for the brain Carbohydrates are used for energy no matter how intense the exercise The amount of carb used is affected by Intensity level of fitness initial muscle glycogen stores and carb supplementation during exercise Lactic acid is produced when glucose is broken down at a very high rate and there is not enough oxygen available Produced and removed from body continuously Can be used for energy during low intensity exercise As exercise intensity increases more lactate is produced and accumulates in the muscles faster than it can be used for energy or shuttled away Can cause increased pH acidity in the muscle cells Causes fatigue Can improve lactate shuttle by increased training Duration affects the amount of glucose and glycogen you use Glucose and glycogen use increases with increased duration Glycogen stores become depleted Hitting the wall or bonking Conditioning Increased muscle glycogen storage Increased endurance Well trained muscles store 20 to 50 percent more glycogen than untrained muscles How much carbohydrate do you need for exercise 45 55 calories

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