UNT BIOL 4220 - Final Exam Study Guide (4 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide


Covering lectures 28-38 for BIOL 4220 Exam 3.

Study Guide
University of North Texas
Biol 4220 - Neuropsychopharm
Neuropsychopharm Documents
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BIOL 4220 1st Edition Exam 3 Study Guide Lectures 28 38 Lecture 28 November 3 One of the therapeutic uses for amphetamine is for narcolepsy and ADHD attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Uses for ephedrine is anti asthmatic agent The signal that triggers the vesicular release of neurotransmitter when action potential arrives at the axon terminal is Ca2 calcium ion entry into the axon terminal When amphetamine binds to dopamine transporters it reverses the effect of the dopamine transporter The exchange diffusion model of amphetamine action on the pre synaptic axon terminal is facilitating vesicular release of dopamine The reverse transporter model of amphetamine action is when the transporter flips into an inside out configuration pumping dopamine out instead of pumping it in Lecture 29 November 5 There are experiments used to prove that release of dopamine induced by amphetamine is not coming from vesicular release The transport of dopamine into the synaptic vesicle by VMAT is dependent on activation of the dopamine transporter The function of VMAT is to pump monoamines such as dopamine into synaptic vesicles One of the sympathomimetric effects is heightened alertness vigilance and motor activation If a person is overdose on amphetamine the subtype of amphetamine induced psychosis catatonic schizophrenia Lecture 30 November 7 Characteristic behavioral effects of amphetamine include heightened alertness increase in selfconfidence feeling of exhilaration decrease in boredom and decreased sleep A characteristic effect of high dosage of amphetamine is stereotypic purposeless pacing and paranoia Serotonin is degraded by the enzyme monoamine oxidase Dopamine is slowed down by end product inhibition when dopamine accumulates in the cytoplasm Amphetamine is trapped inside the synaptic vesicles because it is ionized once inside the vesicles Lecture 31 November 10 Characteristics of ADHD include hyperactivity inattention impulsivity and hyperkinesias ADDRT residual type is ADHD symptoms that persist beyond childhood into adulthood Behavioral characteristics of ADHD in childhood is short attention span low frustration tolerance bullying obstinacy The common characteristic shared between ADD and ADHD is hyperactivity or impulsivity Executive function disorders include ADHD ADD learning disorder ODD and conduct disorder Lecture 32 November 12 Executive control functions include selective attention judgement planning and decision making The part of the brain involved in processing executive control functions is the prefrontal cortex Working memory is the dynamic memory that holds temporary information to accomplish a task Working memory is mainly used for dynamic memory for temporary storage of information that requires intermediate steps The test used to screen for impulsivity in resolving the conflict between the color and meaning of a word is the Stroop test The screening test used to test working memory that requires intermediate steps and executive function is the tower of Hanoi The test for testing the reaction time to suppress ongoing motor activity is the stop task test Lecture 33 November 14 The physiological origin of the deficiency in ADHD ADD is insufficient inhibition to suppress impulsive thought and actions A function of working memory could be hindsight forethought anticipatory set sense of time In order to execute a complex sequence of sequence of actions to achieve a desired goal it requires the following executive control skills of memorization of events switch from one task to another prevent inappropriate responses and dealing with novel tasks The process needed to direct attention to an appropriate source by switching attention from one task to another is the attention inhibition process The candidate gene that is linked to ADHD is the DRD4 7R receptor gene defect Lecture 34 November 17 The molecular mechanism of Stretta that Is used to treat ADHD is a norephrinephrine transporter blocker and dopamine blocker The molecular action of Ritalin increase dopamine by blocking the reuptake of its transporter Proposed models of ADHD include inhibition as a conditioning deficit inhibition as an insufficient inhibitory control response response inhibition in the primary deficit inhibition as deviance rather than deficit Longitudinal study of ADHD patients over the course of 10 years showed that pharmacotherapy significantly improves the condition while behavioral is ineffective A double blind study of ADHD patients showed that the effects of Ritalin and amphetamine is indistinguishable from eachother The neurological model that corresponds with the biological origin of ADHD is hypo dopamine hypothesis The dopaminergic neural circuitory involved in executive control is the prefrontal cortex If given at the right dosage the therapeutic effect of Ritalin in ADHD is a calming effect The effect of Ritalin on a normal person is hyperactivity and hyperarousal The prevalence in ADHD in a general population is 3 in 5 Cocaine has similar molecular action as Ritalin Lecture 35 November 19 A characteristic of schizophrenia is delusion disturbance of thought and hallucination Synethesia is altered sensory perception due to cross modality association such as seeing sound or hearing colors Characteristic of delusion includes persecutory delusion grandiose religiosity and jealous The most common form of hallucination in schizophrenia is auditory A characteristic of catatonic subtype of schizophrenia is motor disturbances and self injury A negative symptom of schizophrenia is lack of behavior emotion or thought Schizophrenia occurs in 1 of the population and the lifetime risk of monozygotic twins is 50 Schizophrenia is a thought disorder The molecular action of a typical antipsychotic is a dopamine receptor blocker The most common onset of schizophrenia is late teens or early twenties Pathological abnormalties of schizophrenia include abnormal neural migration synatogenesis neural pruning neural apoptosis Lecture 36 November 21 A physiological test for schizophrenia is the pre pulse inhibition test where a large bang is preceded by a soft tone Environmental stressors for schizophrenia include emotional negativity critical or overemotional family climate over stimulation in social environment stressful life even beyond personal control Personal environmental protector for schizophrenia includes coping skills self efficacy positive supportive psychosocial environment and family problem solving

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