USF AST 2003 - Exam 3 Study Guide (6 pages)

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Exam 3 Study Guide

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Exam 3 Study Guide


Outline of topics discussed in our third section of the course.

Study Guide
University of South Florida
Ast 2003 - Astronomy of the Solar System NS
Astronomy of the Solar System NS Documents
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AST 2003 1st Edition Exam 3 Study Guide Provided is an outline of topics discussed during our third section I ve tried my best to organize topics effectively Terms Sections People and some miscellaneous Information It s a lot to look at but pace yourself and remember we won t need to know everything I hope the outline will be beneficial to the class Good Luck and happy studying Terms asteroids minor planets usually between Mars and Jupiter comets remnants of early solar system with highly eccentric orbits develop a tail when close to the sun meteors shooting stars mostly tiny particles burning up in the atmosphere Orionids Oct 21 st Eta Aquarids May 6th zodiacal light light extending from the horizon to the ecliptic faint cone of light Gegenschein type of faint light that shines opposite of the position of the sun solar eclipse season lasts 32 days lunar eclipse more common totality lasts over an hour season lasts 22 days Saros cycle eclipse cycle with a period of 223 synodic months annular eclipse eclipse of the sun where a ring can be observed partial eclipse eclipse of the sun or moon where only partially is shadowed node point where the path of the moon crosses the ecliptic synodic month time between successive phases synodic period time it takes to show the same phase with relation to the Earth draconic month time between two similar nodes anomalistic month time for the moon to move to the same position in its eclipse sidereal month true orbital rate of the moon sidereal period time it takes a planet to orbit the sun prograde moving west to east retrograde moving east to west elongation angle between sun and planet greatest elongation greatest angular distance that can be from the sun occultations when one object blocks out another conjunctions when objects appear to be close together inferior conjunction the alignment of the Earth and a planet on the same side of the sun superior conjunction opposite side of the sun from the Earth cardinal points North East West South radiant the point in space from which a meteor shower appears to emanate Trigon of Great Conjunctions three consecutive conjunctions make a triangle trigon Kepler s laws of planetary motion 1 Planets orbit the sun in ellipses with the sun at one focus orbits close to being circular 2 A line connecting a planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal time Equation of Time on sundials An Empirical proven Law Used in calculating orbital paths 3 The square of a planets orbital period is proportional of the cube of its distance from the sun T 2 R 3 Years to orbit sun AU Formation of the Solar System Patterson associated with aging process through ancient rock which helped confirm Earth s age of about 4 550 million years Descartes proposed that the solar system began as a massive cloud of gas and dust and through external forces conditions become intense enough to form a star at the center Laplace proposed conversation of angular momentum as nebula spin increases it collapses and changes shape into flattened disk Motion of the Moon moves at an angular distance equal to its size in about an hour or 13 degrees a day shadows of the moon are best viewed at the terminator best viewed at full phase orbits earth in an ellipse perigee closest apogee farthest always has the same face pointing the Earth rises in the East sets in the West waxing moon the phases get bigger as the evening moves on see diagrams page 10 2a waning moon seen in the sky when the sun comes up then phases turn into waxing phases see diagrams page 10 2a Aristarchus used lunar eclipses to estimate the size of the moon Why is there not an eclipse every month Because of the tilt of the moon s orbital path which cannot drift more than 5 2 degrees away from the ecliptic Phases of the Moon Inner Planets SUN 93 million miles away closest star center of other planets orbit half way through its lifetime MERCURY Hermes Messenger slightly larger than moon weak magnetic field Mariner only space probe VENUS Aphrodite twin of Earth high volcanic activity only to spin opposite wayEARTH 4500 million years old well developed atmosphere affected by the life existing on it MARS Ares length of a day similar to Earth s has seasons once had water 2 moons Phobos Deimos Outer Planets JUPITER Zeus metallic core H strong magnetic field moons 61 in total Io Europa Ganymede Callisto SATURN Cronus 30 years to orbit sun least densest planet biggest moon is Titan URANUS faint ring system detected using stellar occultation 27 moons ex Miranda NEPTUNE Poseidon most distant of gas giants interior of planet rotates faster than the atmosphere faint ring moon ex Triton PLUTO more like Kuiper belt object most eccentric orbit small moon and 2 recently found Charon New Horizons probe 10 year journey declares not a planet by the IAU 2006 there are currently 3 dwarf planets Pluto Ceres Eris To be a planet It must orbit the Sun It must be large enough to become spherical It must clear out its orbit of other objects Motion of the Planets Composition of protoplanets depends on location density and temperature is greater near the center larger planets form from gas molecules because of the outer regions material condensing quickly looping motion of the planets movement due to Kepler s 3rd Law wandering among the stars occurs because the Earth is closer to the Sun therefore moving faster in orbit Mars moves the fastest size of the loop depends on distance from the sun People Hipparchus 1st star catalogue and astronomer precession Galileo discoveries supported Copernicus made many discovers with homemade telescope 1609 accused of heresy Ptolemy Earth was stationary sphere theory planets orbit the earth or Geocentric Copernicus sun at the center Heliocentric created system model Tycho Brahe meticulous eccentric astronomer invented new instruments to improve accuracy was funded to build observatory hired Kepler as an assistant William Hershel URANUS Known for his discovery of Uranus which he originally thought was a comet Was made court astronomer to king George and tried to name it George s planet Adams and Le Verrier NEPTUNE predicted mass and orbit Airy Galle NEPTUNE caused controversy of who was pre eminent in the discovery Tombaugh PLUTO discovery through photographic plates although Lowell predicted its position earlier Miscellaneous HL Tau only 100 000 yrs old protoplanetary disk Youngest forming planet ever seen A ball of gas and dust forming Sputnik 1 first man made object put in space

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