USF AST 2003 - Final Exam Study Guide (15 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide



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Final Exam Study Guide

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Pages:
15
Type:
Study Guide
School:
University of South Florida
Course:
Ast 2003 - Astronomy of the Solar System NS
Astronomy of the Solar System NS Documents
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AST 2003 Fall 2014 Final Exam Study Guide Fall Constellations Andromeda Mirach Great Square of Pegasus Scheat shoulder Markab nose Algenib the side Stephen s Quintet NGC 7318A 7320 7318B Aquarius Water Bearer Sadalmeik luckiest star in the kingdom Sadalsound luckiest one of all Sadachbia luckiest star of hidden things Helix nebula god s eye nebula 50 LYS wide Pisces Fish cord knot circlet Aphrodite and son disguised as fish Aries Mars god of war Hamal Cetus Whale Mira youngest stars Deneb K whale s tail Baten K monster s belly Eridanus River Aczcar barred spiral star Spring Constellations Leo Nemean Lion Regulus Leo Triplet 65 LYS away M66 M65 NGC 3628 Virgo only maiden Spica ear of wheat Virgo cluster See Thurs 10 9 Lecture Bootes Arcturus Ophiucus Britney Spears of the night sky Sabik Barnard s Star fastest moving star 150 second Hercules 12 Labours keystone shape Sarin Corona Borealis Crown of Ariadne Alphecca Libra Scales most modern constellation stolen from Scorpio southern claw Canus Venatici Cor Caroli M51 Whirlpool galaxy Corvus crow Minkar Raven s beak Gienah Ghurab Raven s wing Crater cup Alkes Coma Berenices newest constellation Summer Constellations Summer Triangle Vega Deneb Altair Lyra lyre Vega Cygnus Swan Deneb Aquila Altair Sagittarius centaur archer Ascella Scorpio Scorpion Capricorn goat fish Deneb Algedi tail of the goat oldest constellation Scutum Shield Winter Constellations Orion hunter Rigel M42 Orion Nebula Gemini twins Pollux Eskimo Nebula Cancer crab faintest constellation Acubens Praesepe M44 beehive cluster Canis major large dog Sirius Canis minor small dog Procyon Capella she goat Capella Taurus bull Aldebaran eye of the bull Crab Nebula Fornax fox Monoceros unicorn Other information William Parsons built the largest telescope in 1845 Libration tilt bobble head effect of the moon s movement Terminator Line shadows of the moon best viewed at this line Synodic month 29 53 days between consecutive full moons Sidereal month 27 32 days for Earth s rotation Blue Moon 2nd full moon in the month Section 1 Polaris pole star North star all stars seem to rotate around the pole star 1 AU distance from Earth to Sun Our galaxy 17 million light years across 88 constellations noticed today Magnitude Scale Hipparchus classified stars according to brightness higher the number the fainter the star human eye can see down to 6th magnitude the brightest stars have proper names Rigel Betelgeuse Motion of the Night Sky depends on location sun appears higher in the sky during summer longer days sun appears lower in the sky during winter shorter days Culminate when stars are at their highest point due south Observer s meridian Declination dec 90 lat are circumpolar dec 90 lat are not seen Motion of the Earth anticlockwise rotates every 23 hr 56 min orbits every 365 25 days the tilt of the Earth s axis is what causes the seasons Axis of rotation 23 5 degrees Summer sun is above celestial equator Winter sun below celestial equator Constellations Orion Winter hunter pursued 7 sisters Pleiades killed by scorpion Tarus Winter Crab Nebula 6300 Lys Canis Major Winter the great dog Gemini Winter twins Summer Triangle Cygnus Lyra Aquila brightest stars Altair Deneb and Vega Terms 1 AU distance from Earth to Sun 93 million miles 1 LY 63 241 AU 9 45 x 1015 meters 5 9 trillion miles Parallax taking tiny measurements overtime SETI Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence NGC New General Catalogue Celestial poles directly above Earth s poles Celestial equator directly above Earth s equator Declination degrees Right ascension hr min Circumpolar circle circle around the pole star where circumpolar stars reside Aphelion farthest to the sun Perihelion closest to the sun First point of Aries point where sun crosses celestial equator heading North sometimes Vernal equinox Circumpolar constellations Cepheus Perseus Uras Major Ursa Minor Camelopardalis Cassiopeia Draco M101 Pinwheel Galaxy M42 The Orion Nebula IC434 B33 Horsehead Nebula M9 Owl Nebula M31 farthest to see with the naked eye 47 Ursae Majoris 47th brightest similar to the sun 46 Lys away M81 M82 Arch discovered by Charles Messier Algol eclipsing binary star Andromeda galaxy 2 2 million Lys Helix Nebula god s eye Planetary Nebula ring around the star after explosion Famous double star Mizar Alcor Uranus and Venus are the only two planets that spin differently Section 3 Terms asteroids minor planets usually between Mars and Jupiter comets remnants of early solar system with highly eccentric orbits develop a tail when close to the sun meteors shooting stars mostly tiny particles burning up in the atmosphere Orionids Oct 21 st Eta Aquarids May 6th zodiacal light light extending from the horizon to the ecliptic faint cone of light Gegenschein type of faint light that shines opposite of the position of the sun solar eclipse season lasts 32 days lunar eclipse more common totality lasts over an hour season lasts 22 days Saros cycle eclipse cycle with a period of 223 synodic months annular eclipse eclipse of the sun where a ring can be observed partial eclipse eclipse of the sun or moon where only partially is shadowed node point where the path of the moon crosses the ecliptic synodic month time between successive phases synodic period time it takes to show the same phase with relation to the Earth draconic month time between two similar nodes anomalistic month time for the moon to move to the same position in its eclipse sidereal month true orbital rate of the moon sidereal period time it takes a planet to orbit the sun prograde moving west to east retrograde moving east to west elongation angle between sun and planet greatest elongation greatest angular distance that can be from the sun occultations when one object blocks out another conjunctions when objects appear to be close together inferior conjunction the alignment of the Earth and a planet on the same side of the sun superior conjunction opposite side of the sun from the Earth cardinal points North East West South radiant the point in space from which a meteor shower appears to emanate Trigon of Great Conjunctions three consecutive conjunctions make a triangle trigon Kepler s laws of planetary motion 1 Planets orbit the sun in ellipses with the sun at one focus orbits close to being circular 2 A line connecting a planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal time Equation of Time on sundials An Empirical proven Law Used in calculating orbital paths 3 The square of a planets


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