Rose-Hulman CHEM 330 - Signal transduction (11 pages)

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Signal transduction



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Signal transduction

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Pages:
11
School:
Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology
Course:
Chem 330 - Biochemistry I

Unformatted text preview:

Signal transduction In order to interact properly with their environment cells need to allow information as well as molecules to cross their cell membranes Information in many single celled and all multicellular organisms is transmitted in the form of molecules However the molecule itself does not contain the information The molecule only carries the fact of the information not the information itself The way the cell acts on the arrival of the information determines the information content in effect the cell itself decides how to respond to the information Glucose in most cells is not a signaling molecule because the cell merely uses glucose as a metabolite while insulin is a signaling molecule because its primary function is to modify cellular responses rather than to act as a source of energy or biosynthetic intermediates The term signal transduction refers to the conversion of the information carried by signaling molecules into changes in cellular activities Requirements for signal transduction 1 Signal transduction requires a receptor a cellular protein that recognizes the signaling molecule In the absence of the receptor the ligand has no effect Cells that lack receptors for a given ligand do not respond to that ligand Note a ligand is a signaling molecule that binds to a particular receptor Receptors must bind the signaling molecule with high affinity Receptors must bind ligand at physiological ligand concentrations If the Kd for the ligand is 10 M while the physiological concentration of the ligand is 0 1 nM the protein is not the receptor for that ligand For example the estrogen receptor has a Kd for estradiol of 0 1 0 2 nM in mature females the serum concentration of estradiol usually varies between about 0 1 and 1 3 nM depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle Receptors must exhibit specificity for the ligand Receptors should bind ligands but should not bind closely related molecules This is not an absolute requirement and in most cases high enough



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