PGCC PSC 1010 - Lecture Notes (21 pages)

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Lecture Notes



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Lecture Notes

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Pages:
21
School:
Prince George’s Community College
Course:
Psc 1010 - Introduction to Astronomy

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Quiz 4 Recap 17 November 2011 Sunspots are cooler than their surroundings Magnetic fields suppress rising hot gas in the convective zone All planets orbit the Sun in the same direction in approximately the same plane How do we know the temperature of the Sun s photosphere is 5 800 K Spectroscopy and Wien s Law Stefan Boltzmann Law Luminosity Radius Temp Equation If you know R L can find T L 4 R2 T4 Wien s Law Inner Planets are Rocky Thin crust Generally thick rocky silicate mantle Iron Nickle core Chemical composition similar to Sun for elements heavier than Hydrogen or Helium Low mass Dense Thin atmosphere Outer or Jovian Planets All the Jovian planets are larger than the Terrestrial planets All have similar compositions and are similar to the Sun Solar composition is mostly Hydrogen some Helium etc All have low average densities All have rings and many satellites None have surfaces but only increasingly dense atmospheres and rock and metal cores High mass Thick atmosphere 6 Outer Planets are More Massive The heat from the Sun prevents ices from reforming on the dust grains in the region near the Sun Ices condensed only in the outer parts of the Solar nebula In the inner portion of the disk only materials like iron and silicates rock can condense into solids Slowly they form clumps of material In the outer portion of the disk much more material can condense as solids including ice This extra material allows clumps to grow larger and faster Both rock and ices water methane ammonia may form in the outer solar system Since hydrogen is the most abundant element in the solar nebula and it condenses at lower temperatures there is more planet building material in the outer solar system Outer Planets are More Massive The most abundant atom in the universe is hydrogen In our solar system molecules with hydrogen may condense change from gas to liquid or solid ice only in the cool outer regions Therefore there is more planet building material in the outer solar system Both



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