PGCC PSC 1010 - Astronomical Coordinates Summary (20 pages)

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Astronomical Coordinates Summary



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Astronomical Coordinates Summary

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Pages:
20
School:
Prince George’s Community College
Course:
Psc 1010 - Introduction to Astronomy

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Astronomical Coordinates Summary Relative to Observer Local Horizon Local Meridian Local Zenith Altitude Azimuth Coordinates Pro Easy to record for instantaneous position Con Objects change angles coordinates throughout the night Con not easy to compare measurements made by different observers 1 Ancient Alt Az Observatory Chankillo Peru 2300 years old Marks positions of sunrise throughout the year 2 Last Class Summary Astronomical Coordinates Fixed to rotating Earth Celestial Equator Right Ascension Measure from Vernal March Equinox Declination measure from Celestial Equator Celestial Coordinates Pro stars have fixed coordinates Pro easy to compare measurements made by different observers Note Sun changes celestial coordinates throught the year as it follows the ecliptic through the Zodiac Note Require a clock at each observatory for coordinate system reference 3 Time of the Seasons We have seasons because of the tilt of the Earth s axis The Ecliptic appears tilted 23 5 from the Celestial Equator because Earth s axis is tilted 23 5 from the vertical to the plane of its orbit Because of this tilt the Sun appears half the year North of the Equator and half the year South of the Equator The seasons are defined based on the location of the Sun compared to the Celestial Equator 4 Summer On the first day of Summer The Sun is at its farthest distance North of the Celestial Equator 23 5 N declination The is known as the Summer Solstice The Northern Hemisphere is tilted towards the Sun we experience the longest day of the year about June 21 The Southern Hemisphere is tilted away from the Sun This is the beginning of Winter and the shortest day of the year there Sun rise and sets at its most northerly 5 6 Why it s hotter in the Summer and colder in the Winter At the summer solstice the North gets more direct sunlight and more hours of sunlight At the same time it is winter in the South less direct sunlight fewer hours of daylight 7 In the winter months the Sun is lower in the



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